I'll just list some things that came to mind that might cause the issues.
1. Microsoft auto update (I've lost count how many times it messed something up in my experience).
2. Graphics card, RAM or motherboard card is going bad.
3. Something is overheating (possibly already damaged), make sure your case fans, graphics card fan and the H50 are clean and working.
4. PSU going bad or a power spike caused damage to one or many components.
Are you overclocking anything? If you can get into BIOS, do a full reset to defaults (updating the BIOS doesn't necessarily reset to default). I'm assuming the motherboard BIOS isn't corrupted since you can not only access it, but update it as well.
Bad or overclocked RAM could have caused corruption in the main drive; but then there's the lines you saw on the display. I guess the lines could have been driver related instead of a dying card. I don't know if a dying SSD would cause this kind of problem, I think they just stop working.
If possible, try the RAM, graphics card, and SSD one at a time in a different computer. You might not want to boot into Windows on the test computer to avoid corrupting that Windows installation. I would recommend unplugging the test computer's boot disc and run a live boot Linux distro off a DVD or USB thumb drive. If you don't want to mess with Linux, make sure you have a current full backup of the test computer before you test the parts in it.
If the RAM, graphics card and SSD seem to function fine in a test system then, if possible, try a different PSU with the problem computer. If problems still exist, and you know that the graphics card, RAM and SSD are good, then it would be a bad motherboard or CPU perhaps.
EDIT: for extra info
I did just did a quick search and found that sometimes bad firmware on the SSD can cause it to corrupt data. If you just updated the SSD firmware, or it auto updated, that might be the problem.
I learned binary so that I could break in registers w/ wpcredit. Now my RIMMs keep spin'n every time I stop but I was still vexed by small pages until I tried 7-max.