Overclock.net › Forums › General Hardware › General Processor Discussions › so how does a cpu work?!?!
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

so how does a cpu work?!?!

post #1 of 7
Thread Starter 
sry for the noob question but really, can anyone tell me how a cpu works? why a cpu needs so many transistors and exactly how the transistors process data by just turning on and off? and how does hyperthreading allow each physical core to act as if there's two?

some information about different components in the cpu can be helpful too, such as how the four levels of caching works and why there's four levels... and why is there more than 1 type of voltages in the cpu. if anyone can tell me how a transistor works too i'd appreciate it.

thanks
mission3
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7 980x Asus sabertooth x58 2x ASUS GTX 480 SLI 6GB corsair DDR3-1600 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Crucial M4 128Gb + 1TB seagate HD Windows 7 ultimate 64-bit ASUS VG236 23" 120hz + 3d vision, Acer H233H 23" Corsair AX1200 
Case
coolermaster haf 932 
  hide details  
Reply
mission3
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7 980x Asus sabertooth x58 2x ASUS GTX 480 SLI 6GB corsair DDR3-1600 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Crucial M4 128Gb + 1TB seagate HD Windows 7 ultimate 64-bit ASUS VG236 23" 120hz + 3d vision, Acer H233H 23" Corsair AX1200 
Case
coolermaster haf 932 
  hide details  
Reply
post #2 of 7
Wikipedia is your friend: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit
Finally an update
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7 7700k MSI Z270 Pro Carbon Zotac GTX1060 6gb GSkill TridentZ 16gb (3200mhz) 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Samsung 850 EVO 250gb WD Blue 500gb RAID0 ASUS DVDRW Thermalright Venemous-X 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 10 Acer H257HU 1440p Razor Blackwidow Seasonic X650 
Case
Coolermaster Storm Scout 
  hide details  
Reply
Finally an update
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7 7700k MSI Z270 Pro Carbon Zotac GTX1060 6gb GSkill TridentZ 16gb (3200mhz) 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Samsung 850 EVO 250gb WD Blue 500gb RAID0 ASUS DVDRW Thermalright Venemous-X 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 10 Acer H257HU 1440p Razor Blackwidow Seasonic X650 
Case
Coolermaster Storm Scout 
  hide details  
Reply
post #3 of 7
What is a CPU?

The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is considered the brain of a computer. Without this vital component, the computer wouldn't be able do any of the functions it is capable of doing. Basically, it is a chip that handles the moving and processing of data.
With each new upgrade, the CPU is getting faster and more powerful. Speed and reliability is the name of the game when consumers are comparing CPU chips in the new PCs. For some, the brand of CPU is the major selling point for many when buying a new computer. The faster and more powerful the CPU, the more the computer will sell.


How Does it Work?

The CPU sits in the motherboard as the central unit. All of the other hardware components and programs installed on the system must go through the CPU before their function can be carried out. The CPU's job function is important and enormous in scale.
When a function, program or piece of data is called, the CPU pulls it from Random Access Memory (RAM) and any other hardware in order to process it. The CPU then reads the instructions associated to the task before sending it back to RAM. The instructions that the CPU receives pertains to calculations and data transportation. The system bus is the trail that the data must travel before it is executed. It is the CPU's job to make sure that the data is guided through the system bus to be processed by the CPU and then on to the next step. With every stop on the system bus, the CPU makes sure that the data gets there in the correct order.


The Two Data Types

There are two types of data that the CPU handles at a given time. One is the data that needs to be processed. The other is the program code that is connected to the data. The programming code is a list of instructions on how the data should be handled and processed in a language that the CPU can interpret. The programming code also contains the route of the system bus for the data. Since other components of the computer may not understand the programming code, it is the CPU's job to interpret the instructions to those components. The CPU continues to handle both pieces of data until it is no longer needed, which is when the program is closed or the hardware is no longer accessed.

Resistors

Resistors increased reliability and lower power consumption, transistors also allowed CPUs to operate at much higher speeds because of the short switching time of a transistor in comparison to a tube or relay.
PC
(7 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5 2500K Asrock p67 extreme4 gen3 Gigabyte GTX 970 G1 Corsair 8 GB  
Hard DriveCoolingCase
M4 128 GB 212+ evo  Corsair 600T SE 
  hide details  
Reply
PC
(7 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5 2500K Asrock p67 extreme4 gen3 Gigabyte GTX 970 G1 Corsair 8 GB  
Hard DriveCoolingCase
M4 128 GB 212+ evo  Corsair 600T SE 
  hide details  
Reply
post #4 of 7
This question would take years or study to answer fully. To get a basic understanding, I agree with the previous poster. Wiki is your friend.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_numeral_system
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_gate
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip-fl...electronics%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adder_%28electronics%29


This is some simple stuff that really explains the lowest level (mostly) of processor design.
    
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7-2600k 4.5GHz @ 1.32V Asus P8P67 Pro EVGA GTX 580 Mushkin 2133 9-10-9-24 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 840  WD Black Silver Arrow Windows 7 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
Dell U2211H Rosewill RK-9000BR Seasonic X750 HAF X 
MouseAudio
Razer Lachesis Grado HF2 
  hide details  
Reply
    
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7-2600k 4.5GHz @ 1.32V Asus P8P67 Pro EVGA GTX 580 Mushkin 2133 9-10-9-24 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 840  WD Black Silver Arrow Windows 7 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
Dell U2211H Rosewill RK-9000BR Seasonic X750 HAF X 
MouseAudio
Razer Lachesis Grado HF2 
  hide details  
Reply
post #5 of 7
From what I've read, hyper-threading works like this:
Hyper threading allows you to use the time spent waiting for the next clock cycle,or the time when the pipeline is flushed, or when a stall occurs to process instructions that are stored in a second area.

to understand hyper-threading (or simultaneous multi-threading), it's helpful to read up on the purpose and function of pipelines and cache.
post #6 of 7
Quote:
Originally Posted by Captain1337 View Post
What is a CPU?

The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is considered the brain of a computer. Without this vital component, the computer wouldn't be able do any of the functions it is capable of doing. Basically, it is a chip that handles the moving and processing of data.
With each new upgrade, the CPU is getting faster and more powerful. Speed and reliability is the name of the game when consumers are comparing CPU chips in the new PCs. For some, the brand of CPU is the major selling point for many when buying a new computer. The faster and more powerful the CPU, the more the computer will sell.


How Does it Work?

The CPU sits in the motherboard as the central unit. All of the other hardware components and programs installed on the system must go through the CPU before their function can be carried out. The CPU's job function is important and enormous in scale.
When a function, program or piece of data is called, the CPU pulls it from Random Access Memory (RAM) and any other hardware in order to process it. The CPU then reads the instructions associated to the task before sending it back to RAM. The instructions that the CPU receives pertains to calculations and data transportation. The system bus is the trail that the data must travel before it is executed. It is the CPU's job to make sure that the data is guided through the system bus to be processed by the CPU and then on to the next step. With every stop on the system bus, the CPU makes sure that the data gets there in the correct order.


The Two Data Types

There are two types of data that the CPU handles at a given time. One is the data that needs to be processed. The other is the program code that is connected to the data. The programming code is a list of instructions on how the data should be handled and processed in a language that the CPU can interpret. The programming code also contains the route of the system bus for the data. Since other components of the computer may not understand the programming code, it is the CPU's job to interpret the instructions to those components. The CPU continues to handle both pieces of data until it is no longer needed, which is when the program is closed or the hardware is no longer accessed.

Resistors

Resistors increased reliability and lower power consumption, transistors also allowed CPUs to operate at much higher speeds because of the short switching time of a transistor in comparison to a tube or relay.
Bravo
post #7 of 7
What Hyperthreading does, is it allows the CPU core to start on the next thread, before finishing the current one it's working on. This allows the portions of the core that aren't being used by the current thread to start processing the next thread, if they can. It makes the useage of your CPU more efficient.

Since it's obviously not doubling the power, that's why you don't actually get the same performance as having two real cores. Also the performance increase is variable compared to non-hyperthreaded cores, as some things will be able to be processed much quicker due to the hyperthreading, and some will not be able to run much at the same time as the other thread, so will not get much performance boost.
SUPERPWN
(12 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i5 4670K Asus z87-Pro MSI GTX 1080 Aero 32GB DDR3 Gskill Ripjaws 
Hard DriveOSMonitorMonitor
4TB Seagate Windows 8 x64 Overlord x270 OC HP ZR27 
MonitorKeyboardPowerAudio
Asus PG279Q G-Tune Topre Realforce 800w Yulong D100 DAC with Denon D7000 headphones 
  hide details  
Reply
SUPERPWN
(12 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i5 4670K Asus z87-Pro MSI GTX 1080 Aero 32GB DDR3 Gskill Ripjaws 
Hard DriveOSMonitorMonitor
4TB Seagate Windows 8 x64 Overlord x270 OC HP ZR27 
MonitorKeyboardPowerAudio
Asus PG279Q G-Tune Topre Realforce 800w Yulong D100 DAC with Denon D7000 headphones 
  hide details  
Reply
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: General Processor Discussions
Overclock.net › Forums › General Hardware › General Processor Discussions › so how does a cpu work?!?!