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Why are we stuck at 3-4 ghz ???

post #1 of 18
Thread Starter 
For years now both Intel and Amd makes processors with default speed of around 3 ghz.
What I dont understand is why ? Why this wall ?
I remember in days of pentium 3 when they always increased speeds. From 800 mhz to 1 ghz to 1.5 ghz all the way to 3ghz
I dont understand why are we stuck at this speed ?
What is preventing them from making a cpu with stock 5 or 6ghz ? Or even more ?
What exactly is so special in 3 or 4 ghz that it seems imposible to go beyond it,so they have to figure out other ways to speed processors up such as adding more cores,making IPC improvements etc .. ?
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post #2 of 18
It's all still made of silicon. Going smaller will help but, eventually something will have to replace silicon. We're getting closer and closer to the limits of the material itself.
    
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post #3 of 18
^ This.

IBM made CPUs out of graphene that were running at 100GHz.
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post #4 of 18
OP read about the limits of Moore's Law and this link it will help you understand tongue.gifhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1008-5112061.html
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post #5 of 18
voltage, cooling and practicality.

You need increased voltage to reach those higher clock speeds, but this shortens the life of the CPU. And less voltage is required the smaller the transistors get (32nm to 22nm die shrink). You also need some pretty extreme cooling to get that kind of clock speed on traditional CPUs; things like phase changers and LN2 are expensive and impractical for the everyday user. And mainstream users don't need that kind of computing power to browse the web and do light video editing (the enthusiast market is limited by mainstream users? ). Or, you could go back to the P4 days where IPC was low and clock speed was abundant. I've wondered what kind of clock speeds could be reached if Intel shrunk the P3 or P4 design to a 22nm fin-fet die. (if I'm mistaken, please correct me)
post #6 of 18
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by MaxWaves;15331751 
OP read about the limits of Moore's Law and this link it will help you understand tongue.gifhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1008-5112061.html

I still dont understand ! We have a couple of die size shrinks without any increase in frequency. Pentium 4 runs at same speeds as todays cpu,and it was 90nm I think. Now we have 32nm cpus which run at the same speed.
Why ?
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post #7 of 18
Quote:
Originally Posted by digiadventures;15331924 
I still dont understand ! We have a couple of die size shrinks without any increase in frequency. Pentium 4 runs at same speeds as todays cpu,and it was 90nm I think. Now we have 32nm cpus which run at the same speed.
Why ?
clock speed=/= performance. The IPC counts too. It takes a amd quad core at 4 to match a 3.2 sb
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post #8 of 18
Die shrinkage addresses die space and power consumption.
While IPC and speed are a trade-off, if you want more speed you need to give up some IPC. It's been a combination of die shrinkage and architectural changes that have allowed us to have both high IPC and high Ghz in the same design while keeping voltage low (ala Sandy Bridge).
post #9 of 18
Quote:
Originally Posted by Ubernoobie;15331991 
clock speed=/= performance. The IPC counts too. It takes a amd quad core at 4 to match a 3.2 sb

And a refined die shrink (1st gen 45nm vs 2nd gen 32nm).
post #10 of 18
Transistor count raising because of smaller processes also plays a HUGE factor into performance.
    
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