Overclock.net › Forums › Intel › Intel Motherboards › North and South Bridge???
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

North and South Bridge???

post #1 of 7
Thread Starter 
I have always heard the terms "North Bridge", "South Bridge", "Mosfet", and "VRM" but I don't know what they do. Can someone please explain what they mean? Thanks for help in advance!
Edited by Ted Muffin - 1/31/12 at 5:23pm
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
post #2 of 7
They are computer chips (integrated circuits) mounted on computer mothrboards. they control the flow of data to and from the CPU and the various periferals attached to the motherboard, such as the video card and memory chips.

You can Google sonething like "x58 chipset schematic" and see diagrams of motherboards with Intel's x58 chipset.
My System
(15 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
FX6300 Black M5A99X EVO R2.0 Nvidia GTS450 Team Vulcan PC3 12800 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 840 PRO Asus DRW-1608P (x2) Custom Water Cooling Win7 (Ult), Win 8.1 & Win Server 2012 R2 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
2 X Samsung 915N Ducky Shine III, Blue Cherry/Blue LEDs PCP&C 1kw Lian Li PC-71 (W/Window) 
MouseAudio
Logiteck G400s none 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(15 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
FX6300 Black M5A99X EVO R2.0 Nvidia GTS450 Team Vulcan PC3 12800 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 840 PRO Asus DRW-1608P (x2) Custom Water Cooling Win7 (Ult), Win 8.1 & Win Server 2012 R2 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
2 X Samsung 915N Ducky Shine III, Blue Cherry/Blue LEDs PCP&C 1kw Lian Li PC-71 (W/Window) 
MouseAudio
Logiteck G400s none 
  hide details  
Reply
post #3 of 7
Quote:
Originally Posted by Ted Muffin View Post

I have always heard the terms "North Bridge", "South Bridge", "Mosfet", and "VRM" but I don't know what they do. Can someone please explain what they mean? Thanks for help in advance!

let diagrams and wiki do the talking smile.gif

northbridge

southbridge

in this eaxmple the 82975XMCH is the north bridge while the 82801GRICH7R is the southbridge

460

here shows the z68 chipset in which you can see they have removed the northbridge and now just hace a single chipset

545
Going to be chaep
(16 items)
 
Wife's Rig
(12 items)
 
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7-3770k Gigabyte GA-Z77X-UP5 TH MSI GTX460 G.Skill TridentX 2400 2 x 4GB 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Plextor M5p 128GB 2 x WD 500GB Blues LG Prolimatech Megahalems Rev C 
CoolingOSMonitorPower
Arctic F12 CO PWM x 2 Push/Pull Windows 7 64 bit Ultimate LG IPS235V Corsair AX850 
Case
Coolermaster HAF 912 advanced (Asia version) 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
I5-3570K Gigabyte Z68X-UD3H-B3 Inno3D Ichill GTX660 8GB G.Skill RipjawsX 1600 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Samsung 830 128GB WD black 500GB Liteon Coolermaster Hyper 212+ EVO 
OSMonitorPowerCase
Win 7 ultimate Samsung Syncmaster 932gwe+ OCZ ZT series 550W Coolermaster 410 
CPUMotherboardRAMHard Drive
1.67Ghz Atom stock 1GB DDR2 2 x 500GB Western Digital Cavier Blacks [RAID 1] 
CoolingOSPowerCase
stock DSM3.2 [built on linux] stock stock 
OtherOther
Synology DX510 Expansion unit 5 x 1TB WD Cavier Blacks in a RAID 6 
  hide details  
Reply
Going to be chaep
(16 items)
 
Wife's Rig
(12 items)
 
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i7-3770k Gigabyte GA-Z77X-UP5 TH MSI GTX460 G.Skill TridentX 2400 2 x 4GB 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Plextor M5p 128GB 2 x WD 500GB Blues LG Prolimatech Megahalems Rev C 
CoolingOSMonitorPower
Arctic F12 CO PWM x 2 Push/Pull Windows 7 64 bit Ultimate LG IPS235V Corsair AX850 
Case
Coolermaster HAF 912 advanced (Asia version) 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
I5-3570K Gigabyte Z68X-UD3H-B3 Inno3D Ichill GTX660 8GB G.Skill RipjawsX 1600 
Hard DriveHard DriveOptical DriveCooling
Samsung 830 128GB WD black 500GB Liteon Coolermaster Hyper 212+ EVO 
OSMonitorPowerCase
Win 7 ultimate Samsung Syncmaster 932gwe+ OCZ ZT series 550W Coolermaster 410 
CPUMotherboardRAMHard Drive
1.67Ghz Atom stock 1GB DDR2 2 x 500GB Western Digital Cavier Blacks [RAID 1] 
CoolingOSPowerCase
stock DSM3.2 [built on linux] stock stock 
OtherOther
Synology DX510 Expansion unit 5 x 1TB WD Cavier Blacks in a RAID 6 
  hide details  
Reply
post #4 of 7
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by stubass View Post

let diagrams and wiki do the talking smile.gif
northbridge
southbridge
in this eaxmple the 82975XMCH is the north bridge while the 82801GRICH7R is the southbridge
460
here shows the z68 chipset in which you can see they have removed the northbridge and now just hace a single chipset
545

Thanks.
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
post #5 of 7
Be warned, this is laymens terms!

The evolution of the CPU has blurred the lines of Northbridge and Southbridge, so I'll go back to Conroe first to explain a little. The northbridge was the controller chip that included the memory controller and linked the memory, video card and CPU together. The southbridge was the controller chip that linked the I/O, SATA, IDE, and linked other chips like LAN and Audio.


But many features have been integrated into the CPU leaving the northbridge to really only provide PCI-E lanes for extra bandwidth in platofrms like the X58, and gone for all intents and purposes from modern Intel systems. The Southbridge lives on though as you can see, by providing the I/O support, adding PCI-E lanes and additional finctionality like LAN and audio connection.


Now for the Mosfet: It is a type of switch which is extremely small, and is opened when a small amount of electricity is applied to allow electron flow. They come in many sizes and allow for an alomst finite control.

The VRM is a voltage regulator Module which does just what it says, it regulates the electricity flow and is important to the integrity of the electrical circuitry of the motherboard. Most often you find these regulating the power to CPUs and GPUs.

Here is an easy to understand video on the northbridge and southbridge:



The Mosfet:





VRM (Voltage Ruglator Module):
Sorry, couldn't find a video...
My System
(16 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
6850K ASUS X99-AII eVGA GTX 1060 32Gb Team Vulcan DDR4 3000 Cas 15 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
Samsung 960 EVO NVME Crucial M500 Seagate HDD Samsung F3 
CoolingOSMonitorKeyboard
H100i Windows 10 Pro 64 Samsung KU6300 40" Corsair K70 Vengeance 
PowerCaseMouse
Seasonic Gold 750W Phantek Enthoo Pro M Logitech G9X 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(16 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
6850K ASUS X99-AII eVGA GTX 1060 32Gb Team Vulcan DDR4 3000 Cas 15 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
Samsung 960 EVO NVME Crucial M500 Seagate HDD Samsung F3 
CoolingOSMonitorKeyboard
H100i Windows 10 Pro 64 Samsung KU6300 40" Corsair K70 Vengeance 
PowerCaseMouse
Seasonic Gold 750W Phantek Enthoo Pro M Logitech G9X 
  hide details  
Reply
post #6 of 7
MOSFET is a switch which makes up part of the VRM which is the voltage regulator module. your computer's PSU outputs 12v to the CPU power plane, but your CPU only uses like 1-2v max, so there needs to be a DC to DC power supply on the motherboard to change over that voltage. On modern motherboards they use a Switch Mode Power Supply with Buck Converter topology. Basically the power supply switches on and off phases to supply power the CPU, but the switching allow for better efficiency than just having a LDO change over 5v to 1.5v or something. To do this switching two MOSFETs are generally switched per phase, one MOSFET is connected to the 12v input from the computer's PSU and then one MOSFET is connected to ground. Both MOSFETs have their outputs connected to each other, and each one has a gate which is connected to a driver pin. The driver switches one MOSFET on and and the other off and then turns the one that was off on and switches the one that was on to off. The power output from the MOSFETs goes into a choke/inductor which stores the charge, and that is just one phase. Each phase has its MOSFETs connected to the input of one inductor, and then all the inductors are connected to each other on the inductor's output and then to a capacitor bank. The capacitor bank is connected to the CPU, so when the CPU needs power the capacitors discharge power, and then the inductors charge up from each phase and then output to the capacitors while they are discharging. it is a cycle of charging and discharging, but it also smoothes out the ripple and any AC switching noise.

Each phase has a driver which connects to both MOSFETs, and then the driver is sent a signal from the PWM, which is a control chip for the VRM. The PWM outputs a PWM signal to every phase, it handles when each phase switches(offset delay), at what rate(switching frequency), and to what degree(voltage).

Here is the tricky part, only one phase is on at a time, but for like 1/300-1/1000 of a second. One phase turns on and powers the inductor, and then the other turns on while the first one turns off and so on down the line. Each phase fires at its own time, but in like a assembly line. If there are 6 phases for instance, then each phase also only outputs 1/6 of the total current required, and then the power is consolidated at the capacitors.

What i said above applied to 90% of the VRMs, but many newer VRMs, use MORE MOSFETs or less MOSFETs per phase, or even have them integrated(powersatges or DrMOS) many new PWM schemes also operated normally like i said, but can also turn on all phases at the same time and turn them all off at the same time too.
There are also no more northbridge and southbridge anymore, now we have PCH platform controller hubs, and they act like a NB and SB, but the CPu also has more of the NB functions now, like PCi-E controller and memory controller.
Edited by Sin0822 - 2/1/12 at 8:45am
X99 Main Rig
(10 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel 5960X Extreme Edition @ 4.5GHz Always Changing VisonTek R9 290 G.Skill Ripjaws 4 16GB (4x4GB) DDR4 @ 3200MHz 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveCooling
Samsung 128GB M.2 PCI-E 4x SSD Apotop 256GB SSD 1.82TB NAS Noctua NH-D15 with both fans 
OSPower
Win7 Pro Enermax 1000W 
  hide details  
Reply
X99 Main Rig
(10 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel 5960X Extreme Edition @ 4.5GHz Always Changing VisonTek R9 290 G.Skill Ripjaws 4 16GB (4x4GB) DDR4 @ 3200MHz 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveCooling
Samsung 128GB M.2 PCI-E 4x SSD Apotop 256GB SSD 1.82TB NAS Noctua NH-D15 with both fans 
OSPower
Win7 Pro Enermax 1000W 
  hide details  
Reply
post #7 of 7
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by Sin0822 View Post

MOSFET is a switch which makes up part of the VRM which is the voltage regulator module. your computer's PSU outputs 12v to the CPU power plane, but your CPU only uses like 1-2v max, so there needs to be a DC to DC power supply on the motherboard to change over that voltage. On modern motherboards they use a Switch Mode Power Supply with Buck Converter topology. Basically the power supply switches on and off phases to supply power the CPU, but the switching allow for better efficiency than just having a LDO change over 5v to 1.5v or something. To do this switching two MOSFETs are generally switched per phase, one MOSFET is connected to the 12v input from the computer's PSU and then one MOSFET is connected to ground. Both MOSFETs have their outputs connected to each other, and each one has a gate which is connected to a driver pin. The driver switches one MOSFET on and and the other off and then turns the one that was off on and switches the one that was on to off. The power output from the MOSFETs goes into a choke/inductor which stores the charge, and that is just one phase. Each phase has its MOSFETs connected to the input of one inductor, and then all the inductors are connected to each other on the inductor's output and then to a capacitor bank. The capacitor bank is connected to the CPU, so when the CPU needs power the capacitors discharge power, and then the inductors charge up from each phase and then output to the capacitors while they are discharging. it is a cycle of charging and discharging, but it also smoothes out the ripple and any AC switching noise.
Each phase has a driver which connects to both MOSFETs, and then the driver is sent a signal from the PWM, which is a control chip for the VRM. The PWM outputs a PWM signal to every phase, it handles when each phase switches(offset delay), at what rate(switching frequency), and to what degree(voltage).
Here is the tricky part, only one phase is on at a time, but for like 1/300-1/1000 of a second. One phase turns on and powers the inductor, and then the other turns on while the first one turns off and so on down the line. Each phase fires at its own time, but in like a assembly line. If there are 6 phases for instance, then each phase also only outputs 1/6 of the total current required, and then the power is consolidated at the capacitors.
What i said above applied to 90% of the VRMs, but many newer VRMs, use MORE MOSFETs or less MOSFETs per phase, or even have them integrated(powersatges or DrMOS) many new PWM schemes also operated normally like i said, but can also turn on all phases at the same time and turn them all off at the same time too.
There are also no more northbridge and southbridge anymore, now we have PCH platform controller hubs, and they act like a NB and SB, but the CPu also has more of the NB functions now, like PCi-E controller and memory controller.
Quote:
Originally Posted by ericeod View Post

Be warned, this is laymens terms!
The evolution of the CPU has blurred the lines of Northbridge and Southbridge, so I'll go back to Conroe first to explain a little. The northbridge was the controller chip that included the memory controller and linked the memory, video card and CPU together. The southbridge was the controller chip that linked the I/O, SATA, IDE, and linked other chips like LAN and Audio.
But many features have been integrated into the CPU leaving the northbridge to really only provide PCI-E lanes for extra bandwidth in platofrms like the X58, and gone for all intents and purposes from modern Intel systems. The Southbridge lives on though as you can see, by providing the I/O support, adding PCI-E lanes and additional finctionality like LAN and audio connection.
Now for the Mosfet: It is a type of switch which is extremely small, and is opened when a small amount of electricity is applied to allow electron flow. They come in many sizes and allow for an alomst finite control.
The VRM is a voltage regulator Module which does just what it says, it regulates the electricity flow and is important to the integrity of the electrical circuitry of the motherboard. Most often you find these regulating the power to CPUs and GPUs.
Here is an easy to understand video on the northbridge and southbridge:The Mosfet:VRM (Voltage Ruglator Module):
Sorry, couldn't find a video...

Thanks.
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
The Dominator
(18 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
Intel Core i5 3570k SABERTOOTH Z77 Intel(R) HD Graphics 4000 AMD Radeon HD 7800 Series 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
G.Skill Sniper 4gb  Crucial M4 128GB Western Digital Velociraptor 500GB Hp dvd1260 
CoolingOSMonitorMonitor
Stock Intel Cooler(Plan to change soon) Windows 7 64-bit Acer S232HL 23" 1080p Dell E172FP 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Razer Black Widow Ultimate Fsp Arum Series 700w Cooler Master Haf XM Razer Spectre 
Mouse PadAudio
RocketFish Dual Sided Mouse Pad (spped or contr... Razer Kraken Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: Intel Motherboards
Overclock.net › Forums › Intel › Intel Motherboards › North and South Bridge???