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A small correction regarding the laws of thermodynamics and convection.

post #1 of 108
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Recently, I've been seeing many people suggesting the following thing to people looking for help regarding the position of their fan in their case: "No matter what, put your top fans as exhaust because heat rises!"... Wrong! Something you must absolutely have for convection to be applicable is a totally passive environment. As soon as a fan is present, the environment is not passive and the effects of convection are pretty much irrelevant. Here are a few examples of where convection or top exhausts are relevant.

1) Passive PSUs

Some new PSUs are more and more present on the market, these are passive PSUs. These have no fans and therefore rely on passive air movement for cooling (also know as convection). Therefore, you should have the most vented part of it pointing UP (even if you have a bottom vent). This way, the heat that is coming from the PSU components will heat up the air and it will rise out of the PSU. Also, this will help cooling it because your GPU's fan should suck air from the PSU, helping in the cooling. It must noted that this will have almost no impact on the temperature of your GPU since passive PSUs are always very efficient and therefore produce a lot less heat than GPUs.

2) Strict air cooling

By strict air cooling, I mean no radiators. If all your components are cooled by air, you should normally have your top fan(s) as exhaust(s). But, this is not because of convection! This is simply because the component that is the nearest from the top fan(s) is the CPU, a major heat source. Therefore, you wan't the heat to be taken away from the heatsink as fast as possible. Also, this is a good way to keep directional airflow. The top fan will create a low pressure area near the CPU heatsink area which will cause the low pressure area to be filled by the closest source of air. That source should also normally be an intake fan providing cool air for the heatsink's fan(s). If you have a radiator on the back fan, they should always be set up as an intake for the best amount of air. Usually, they will be single radiators hooked up to a CPU cooler like the H Series from Corsair. Therefore, they are cooling the major heat producing component in that area. Because of that, the slightly heated air from the radiator will not cause the temperatures of any components to rise because there's nothing to cool. Of course, there's the VRM area that produces heat but it's a negligable source of heat and could probably be cooled passively in most cases (ie: anything but extreme overclocks on high TDP CPUs).

Now we have seen where your top fan(s) should be set up as exhausts. Sometimes though, you wan't them to be intakes and this is when most misleading advices come.

1) Watercooling

If you have a radiator (Like the H100 or most larger radiators that can only be installed on the tops of a chassis) on the top of your chassis or anywhere else for that matter, it should always be mounted as an intake. This is for various reasons. First, the radiator will only slightly increase the temperature of the air coming in which will not affect the temperature of other components by a significant margin. Also, the radiator is what's cooling the major components in terms of heat production (like a CPU or GPUs) and therefore, that slightly heated air intake will not affect important components except the VRM area which doesn't need much cooling in most cases anyway (ie: anything but extreme overclocks on high TDP CPUs).

Thanks for reading. If you have found any mistakes or believe I have forgotten something, I'd be glad to hear it from you. smile.gif
Edited by Snowmen - 7/2/12 at 7:31pm
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post #2 of 108
Good read. Thanks!
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post #3 of 108
total + rep, that sir needs to be read by all those who say top need to be exhaust because heat rises
   
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post #4 of 108
great post, good information.. thanks for this thread
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post #5 of 108
+Rep. I like top intake and side exhaust, myself.
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post #6 of 108
Quote:
Originally Posted by Snowmen View Post

2) Strict air cooling

By strict air cooling, I mean no radiators. If all your components are cooled by air, you should normally have your top fan(s) as exhaust(s). But, this is not because of convection! This is simply because the component that is the nearest from the top fan(s) is the CPU, a major heat source. Therefore, you wan't the heat to be taken away from the heatsink as fast as possible. Also, this is a good way to keep directional airflow. The top fan will create a low pressure area near the CPU heatsink area which will cause the low pressure area to be filled by the closest source of air. That source should also normally be an intake fan providing cool air for the heatsink's fan(s). If you have a radiator on the back fan, they should always be set up as an intake for the best amount of air. Usually, they will be single radiators hooked up to a CPU cooler like the H Series from Corsair. Therefore, they are cooling the major heat producing component in that area. Because of that, the slightly heated air from the radiator will not cause the temperatures of any components to rise because there's nothing to cool. Of course, there's the VRM area that produces heat but it's a negligable source of heat and could probably be cooled passively in most cases (ie: anything but extreme overclocks on high TDP CPUs).

Now we have seen where your top fan(s) should be set up as exhausts. Sometimes though, you wan't them to be intakes and this is when most misleading advices come.

Rather than words, the best way to test this is with numbers. It's simple and rather concrete. I don't mean to sound bitter, but quite honestly, this test can be done qualitatively, and recommendations should be based on numbers.

I tested my case just now, once with a top intake fan (140 mm) mounted in the forward position (toward the front) then once with the fan in a top exhaust position, mounted in the rear. In both tests, the other side was blocked with a sheet of polycarbonate.
I let my computer idle (well, I'm watching a SC2 stream) for a few minutes, then ran Prime95 for 6 mins (1344 FFT, 5000 MB RAM, 1 min interval) while recording temperature data with realtemp 3.69. I averaged the temperature across all 4 cores, then took the average of these 'average core' temps, starting 10 seconds after beginning Prime95 each time. The results are as follows:
Top intake 54.9 ± 1.1 ºC
Top Exhaust 56.2 ± 1.1 ºC
Ambient temperature was the same for both (I have a thermometer right here), 20.7 ºC
As can be seen, it's rather minimal. But, the effect is there, at least for me in my case with my setup. An intake fan is more effective for cooling. And now that we know the answer, we can begin trying to explain it. I think that the intake fan brings fresh air directly into the CPU cooler. With an exhaust fan, I think that there's slightly less air available for the cooler, if that makes sense. Either way, these are my numbers, if people want to do their own tests, even better, because more data is ideal.

In the spoiler below is a picture of my case, for completeness. Picture of Case (Click to show)
450
post #7 of 108
I've been saying for years that hot air won't rise if you have a fan(s) pushing it. I've had my case fans in every combination and top intake is the best option for my system.
post #8 of 108
Quote:
Originally Posted by tw33k View Post

I've been saying for years that hot air won't rise if you have a fan(s) pushing it. I've had my case fans in every combination and top intake is the best option for my system.

Same here!
I hate how ignorant some people are.

From Finland with Desire
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post #9 of 108
Ever since I had my phantom, I've always ran both top 200mm fan as intake and it does wonders for the vrm and ram temps along with every other air cooled component on the motherboard. I can't comment on anything else since the rest is watercooled with an external radiator. A fan pointed at naked ram dimms is vastly better than any fancy heatspreader can accomplish if the top fans were exhaust.
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post #10 of 108
the importance and relevance of convection cooling is often OUTSIDE the box.... to discount convection entirely is uneducated at best... yes inside a box, any kind of fan would overpower the action of convection, however, this does not negate for physics behind heat rising to the top. with a top side intake, you are often recirculating hot exhaust from PSU/GPU/CPU right back into the case and causing further inefficiency in your overall cooling solution. this problem is especially acute if the computer is in a semi enclosed area such as under a desk where hot exhaust is trapped by the desktop and then sucked back into the case from the top side intake.

recirculation of hot exhaust (thermal short circuit) creates inefficiency and as a result higher decibel levels then necessary to achieve the same goal. overall cooling performance may not be very noticeable however the real discussion in PC cooling really lies in long term decibel level. anyone can cool anything if they used enough 5000rpm delta fans, however, to keep it under acceptable decibel levels, one must search for efficiency and this is where consideration in convection comes into play

a bottom intake and top exhaust ensures maximum separation between cool intake air and hot exhaust air because OUTSIDE the box, hot air WILL rise and convection DOES work...
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