This appears to be an add-on (new with the 12 version of) AMD'd catalyst drivers. I'm an AMD user and I have this as well after the recent update. It shows up with the AMD logo and AML Device Install as the title in MSConfig. AMD using DOS box on a computer is certainly not unheard of. However doing a search on the AMD website, support.amd.com, nor gurus.amd.com yields no results and only references RDSync on their standard page. At best it is safe to turn it off if your getting that error. Perhaps it is a virus and your antivirus software removed it or another user on the computer believed it to be dragging you down (as it is me on bootup which is why I searched it).
If you find that you certainly don't want this on your computer then I might suggest using Spybot S&D which is a bug finding program with some advanced options available which will allow you to multi shred files. Remove items from showing up in your MSConfigs start-up window and automatically block known bad processes from running on your computer. If your feel your computer is at risk you might also consider browsing with ad blocking and script blocking software. Things like that are available using Firefox under the Tools button in the file menu by selecting ad-on and doing a search for Adblock Plus or NoScript (which are the two I use) Additionally there are free online virus scans at Trendmicro
.com and finally AVG
if you want to download the software to your computer and have it run in the background. Personally an occasional scan online works for me. With trendmicro you just download a plugin and it runs online (speed varies based on bandwidth) and AVG local to the computer.