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SUPER challenge...please answer some questions I have about CPUs - Page 3

post #21 of 29
Quote:
Originally Posted by kagaos
So is there any physical part of a chip that is referring to?

Ya, the gates on in the core itelf...

gates are exactly how they sound. They open and close very quickly, to allow the electrical pulses to get where they gotta go.
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post #22 of 29
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Micro resistors, capicitors, micro chips, probably some gold... Anyone else wanna add to it?
Ah HA! I got it now...why didn't you say that in the first place?
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post #23 of 29
transistors, 114 million of them in my 4000+ (as i said before)
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post #24 of 29
I really wish I could help but the only one i know is the one about why AMd does more ops than intel.
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post #25 of 29
ok this is a VERY basic explation of a cpu and what is in it and how it works...

A CPU is named a Central Processing Unit. In this unit is a MPU MicroProcessing Unit, but the difference between a MPU and CPU is the cache. MPUs dont have the cache on the chip, some people will remember the old cpus that u had to put the cache into a slot right by the cpu. the mpu has the data bus, the address bus and some control lines. the data bus works for the I/O and cache. inside the MPU is most of the internal workings of the cpu. Data registers, instruction decoders, controller sequencers, program counters, address registers, accumulators (basically a scratch pad for the alu).. the heart of the computer is the ALU (Arithmetic logic unit) this is what does all the executing of instructions. the ALU is seriously smaller then the size of a BB.. today the mojority of the cpu is taken up by the cache and memory controllers..

and what makes AMD more effecent is basically what people said earlier.. but its backwards.. just to add two numbers like 5 and 8 it might take 10-12 cycles of the APU to perform that.. but with todays processor it can add that and a few hundred other operations in parrallel.. so even though it takes a few cycles to get threw it.. its simply that it can do so much else while its adding or calculating.

hope that helps.. or it might of just confused you more
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post #26 of 29
Quote:
Originally Posted by kagaos
Great answer!!! Now...anybody care to explain to me how those work together to receive and send info.
Ok, I am not an electrical engeneer, but here is it to the best of my understanding:

A CPU is composed of millions of tiny transistors. These transistors can be ether "on", in which a current can flow through, or "off", in which a current can not flow through. Based on which transistors are on and which are off, diferant signals are sent to the memory or to the monitor or what ever.

I know a bit more about memory and its role in computers, however. Here is my more detailed explination of RAM:

RAM acts as a buffer between the hard drive and the CPU. A hard drive is relitivly slow at retreving data, because it must spin a disk and move an arm to read diferant bytes. RAM, on the other had, is much faster, since it uses loaded and unloaded capaciters to store the data.

However, electronic memory is much more expensive then hard drives are (I can get a 160 GB hard drive for much less then a 1 GB stick of RAM), so it is impractical to use it as primary storage. The hard drive stores all of your data, then when you want to read some of it, it does whats call a "read ahead" operation. What this means, is that it grabs not only the byte you (or rather, the CPU) requested, but it also grabes the next few in the sequnce, on the asumtion that you will want those to. These are then moved to the hard drive cache, which is a small amount of RAM on the hard drive its self. From there, it is moved to the system RAM, and then to the L2 cache of the CPU, then the L1 cache, and finaly into the CPU's main registers.

CPU caches are very small amounts (L2 cache size ranges from 512k to 4 MB on current CPUs, while L1 cache is about 16k) of extremly fast RAM. Your system RAM may run at 400, 667, or ever 800 MHz, but your CPU cache runs at, or very close to, the speed of your CPU, alowing the CPU instant access to the data it needs.

This complicated system of buffering alows the CPU to constantly proccess data while more data is read from slower media. If not for RAM and CPU cache, the CPU would have to read data directly from the hard drive or CD drive, which would result in billions of wasted cycles every second.

Here is a quick rundown on caches and memory speeds, from slowest to fastest:


Removible media (CD, DVD, floppy, etc)
Hard Drive
RAM
L2 cache
L1 cache
post #27 of 29
Thread Starter 
Great job guys! I honestly thought you couldn't do it! (or maybe not..idk). I appreciate all of your responses, and I learned alot!
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post #28 of 29
Quote:
Originally Posted by kagaos
Great job guys! I honestly thought you couldn't do it! (or maybe not..idk). I appreciate all of your responses, and I learned alot!
Glade we could help!
post #29 of 29
Quote:
Originally Posted by kagaos
Great job guys! I honestly thought you couldn't do it! (or maybe not..idk). I appreciate all of your responses, and I learned alot!
Perhaps this will add to your understanding.
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