A few basic things ...
If the scannow process log shows hundreds or thousands of corrupted files, you're looking at a minimum of an OS repair from the original DVD. Boot the DVD and follow through with the automatic repair process. It will, during it's normal course of action, check every file in the operating system folder and attempt to replace anything that's damaged. It works a little better than sfc.exe /scannow because the OS itself it shutdown and there are no locked/open files that can't be dealt with.
If the OS repair fails, the next logical thing to look at is the storage medium. Your boot drive might be damaged - I see a load of disks in your system profile, the one that sticks out is the OCZ Agility 3. This one has had numerous firmware revisions for problems ranging from sudden death syndrome to random data loss and performance problems, to corruption of disk writes/reads on the fly. I'd definitely check your SSD firmware as a high priority.
This goes without saying, if you have ANY overclocking settings at all in BIOS - immediately reset them to factory defaults until you get the stability issues resolved. No CPU overclock, definitely no RAM overclocks, and under no circumstances a BCLK OC. LOL.