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64 bit CPU?

post #1 of 9
Thread Starter 
Am I correct that 2-bit cpu can save in "the temporary register" a binary code which is 2 digits long such as "00" or "11"
So 64-bit cpu can save in "the temporary register" a binary code which is 64 digits long such as "00000000....."
post #2 of 9
Yes, the bitness of a CPU typically refers to the size of it's general purpose registers.

Of course, most of these CPUs have special instruction sets with expanded registers (even ancient x87 code can be 80-bit, while AVX is 256).
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post #3 of 9
It's not temporary it's GP register. BTW It also refers to ability to do a memory addressing in an immediate form. 64 bit CPU can address RAM directly while more outdated CPU would need two, or more registers to do the same job.
post #4 of 9
Thread Starter 
so if the ancient x87 had expanded GP registers then what is the purpose of naming the modern CPU "64 bit" when it has nothing to do with the GP registers (I know 64bit is very beneficial when it comes to RAM such as:- can address RAM directly, more memory RAM and it is faster ).

And is it possible that 64 bit cpu is called this way because it can run 64 bit color depth and 64 bit audio??
post #5 of 9
What determines a 64bit CPU is the size of the registers and the length of the instructions fed from memory. The advantage is that a register can store more data (64 vs 32 bit) and the longer instruction words allow for larger values to be "transmitted" in a single instruction, AFAIK
post #6 of 9
Quote:
Originally Posted by mpw94 View Post

so if the ancient x87 had expanded GP registers then what is the purpose of naming the modern CPU "64 bit" when it has nothing to do with the GP registers (I know 64bit is very beneficial when it comes to RAM such as:- can address RAM directly, more memory RAM and it is faster ).

And is it possible that 64 bit cpu is called this way because it can run 64 bit color depth and 64 bit audio??

The bits are about the width of the numbers the CPU can work with in the typical instructions. The typical stuff is... load a register, load a second register, add second to first register, multiply by 3, store the first register, etc... Things like that.

If you want to work on 64 bit numbers on a 32 bit CPU, you can still do that. You will need to split your calculations into 32-bit calculations. If you add two 64 bit numbers, you will first add the lower 32 bit halves, then take the overflow and add the upper 32 bit halves. It's simply a good bit more work for a 32 bit CPU to work on 64 bit numbers. The reverse isn't true. A 64 bit CPU will work on 32 bit numbers in a single step.

The memory can still be larger than what you can actually access by using the number out of a single register. For example, the Commodore 64 had 65536 bytes (64 KB) of RAM but its CPU was only an 8-bit CPU. This means the registers could hold numbers up to 255. If you wanted to access one byte of the 65536 bytes of memory, you had to load the address into two 8-bit registers to use those together like a 16-bit number.

The server version of Windows 32-bit can actually run on machines with 64 GB RAM and access all of that, though each normal program will still only get 2 GB at most. The 4 GB RAM limitation is only on normal Windows 32-bit for whatever reason.

The x87 instructions were originally run by a co-processor to the x86 CPU. You should probably not look at those. You had a motherboard with two sockets. One socket had the 80286 CPU in it, and in the second socket you had your 80287. The 80287 was doing what the 80286 told it to and could load and store things from memory by itself. If the 80287 socket was empty, an x87 instruction wasn't a simple instruction anymore, the 80286 CPU would basically run a program to simulate the missing 80287. Performance was terrible. tongue.gif
post #7 of 9
Quote:
Originally Posted by mpw94 View Post

so if the ancient x87 had expanded GP registers then what is the purpose of naming the modern CPU "64 bit" when it has nothing to do with the GP registers (I know 64bit is very beneficial when it comes to RAM such as:- can address RAM directly, more memory RAM and it is faster ).

x87 isn't strictly general purpose, it's an additional instruction set tacked on, same as with modern SMID/MIMD instruction sets.

Also, most 64-bit CPUs do not have 64-bit memory addressing. 40 or 48-bit (physical) is typical in x86-64 parts, for example.
Quote:
Originally Posted by mpw94 View Post

And is it possible that 64 bit cpu is called this way because it can run 64 bit color depth and 64 bit audio??

No, these are completely independent things.
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post #8 of 9
Quote:
Originally Posted by deepor View Post

Quote:
Originally Posted by mpw94 View Post

so if the ancient x87 had expanded GP registers then what is the purpose of naming the modern CPU "64 bit" when it has nothing to do with the GP registers (I know 64bit is very beneficial when it comes to RAM such as:- can address RAM directly, more memory RAM and it is faster ).

And is it possible that 64 bit cpu is called this way because it can run 64 bit color depth and 64 bit audio??

The bits are about the width of the numbers the CPU can work with in the typical instructions. The typical stuff is... load a register, load a second register, add second to first register, multiply by 3, store the first register, etc... Things like that.

If you want to work on 64 bit numbers on a 32 bit CPU, you can still do that. You will need to split your calculations into 32-bit calculations. If you add two 64 bit numbers, you will first add the lower 32 bit halves, then take the overflow and add the upper 32 bit halves. It's simply a good bit more work for a 32 bit CPU to work on 64 bit numbers. The reverse isn't true. A 64 bit CPU will work on 32 bit numbers in a single step.

The memory can still be larger than what you can actually access by using the number out of a single register. For example, the Commodore 64 had 65536 bytes (64 KB) of RAM but its CPU was only an 8-bit CPU. This means the registers could hold numbers up to 255. If you wanted to access one byte of the 65536 bytes of memory, you had to load the address into two 8-bit registers to use those together like a 16-bit number.

The server version of Windows 32-bit can actually run on machines with 64 GB RAM and access all of that, though each normal program will still only get 2 GB at most. The 4 GB RAM limitation is only on normal Windows 32-bit for whatever reason.

The x87 instructions were originally run by a co-processor to the x86 CPU. You should probably not look at those. You had a motherboard with two sockets. One socket had the 80286 CPU in it, and in the second socket you had your 80287. The 80287 was doing what the 80286 told it to and could load and store things from memory by itself. If the 80287 socket was empty, an x87 instruction wasn't a simple instruction anymore, the 80286 CPU would basically run a program to simulate the missing 80287. Performance was terrible. tongue.gif
Not to forget that the Commodore had a 16bit adress bus. If it had an 8-bit bus it wouldn't have been able to adress so much RAM. Windows Server 32bit supports more than 3.2gb of RAM because a lot of Server CPUs had larger adress busses than their GPR size. I don't think Windows Server 32bit would be able to adress more than 3.2gb of RAM using an ancient Sempron.
post #9 of 9
Quote:
Originally Posted by noobhell View Post

I don't think Windows Server 32bit would be able to adress more than 3.2gb of RAM using an ancient Sempron.

Actually, PAE (36-bit memory addressing) has existed on Intel CPUs since the Pentium Pro, and on AMD CPUs since at least the original Athlon.
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