yes. but still not enough detail for me. specifically i was hoping for the particular code that the OS uses to go into standby with line by line explanation of all the system calls. and in particular was interested in how the OS accesses the bios to accomplish this process. Also when going into standby there is the peculiar paradox of shutting off devices one by one without causing a system error or corruption of the ram. after all, the ram is required for the cpu to function. as the os goes into standby, the ram is dynamically changing to reflect that. Once in standby mode, the ram as well as the cpu registers contain the 'go to sleep' code as well as all the flags that tell the devices on the motherboard to go to sleep. to change the contents of the ram and the cpu registers though you have to wake up the pc. But if you start to wake up the pc it should see this 'go to sleep' state and go back to sleep.