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[ARS] Intel’s 800Gbps cables headed to cloud data centers and supercomputers - Page 4

post #31 of 42
Multimode fiber is generally limited in distance and bandwidth. The refractive index of the different core layers or modes means that the signals sent at the same time arrive at different times. Single mode does not have this out of sync limitation
Quote:
Originally Posted by DuckieHo View Post

Yes, theoretically.... you can fit as many phases of light in a single fiber but how many phases are being used today?

What's the maximum number of FDX fibers in a single cable?

The maximum number of modes is like he said theoretically VERY high but not infinite. You are limited by the refractive index of the core/cladding and the laser(s) you are using. I think somewhere around 50micro is the smallest beam used(by lasers) so at the very least you'd have to have >50micron separation between beams. All beam angles have to be less than the critical angle. The longer the cable the bigger the difference in when the individual signals arrive at the other end. Signals closer to the critial angle can take many times longer to arrive than one near the angle of incidence. Higher order modes will also lose signal strength faster than low order modes. Meaning if you were to point a laser straight at a piece of glass (highest order) almost 100% of the light would penetrate. At the lowest order (nearly) parallel to the glass the light will mostly bounce off. Again another limitation to how many modes you can fit into a single piece of fiber. I don't know the exact number of what's common in high end instrastructure for multimode as I've only mostly seen/used single mode for long distance high rate hauls. But I do know the limit of a single pair multimode is around 10-20Gb/s.

Most of the time the backbone will be single mode trunk with multi mode fiber using only one mode for the internal network(using low cost led's). This is done due to cost as standard 850nm multimode orange fiber is very cheap compared to single mode.

I cannot say that a cable that can do 850Gb/s is all that impressive when it's just a bundle of individual fibers. If it were a single pair it would be ground breaking.

The thunderbolt is a pretty neat idea for the average consumer. Enclose the emitter and sensor in the cable ends and just have it be a standard copper connection so you don't have to worry about contaminates. But $650 seems a bit steep. You will have to deal with (as a retailer) with people that do not understand how fragile fiber is. Toslink gets away with it because it's a really thick pieve of plastic that is not sensitive to micro bends but it's bandwidth is really low comparatively.
Edited by Exidous - 3/14/14 at 6:56am
post #32 of 42
Quote:
Originally Posted by Exidous View Post

Multimode fiber is generally limited in distance and bandwidth. The refractive index of the different core layers or modes means that the signals sent at the same time arrive at different times. Single mode does not have this out of sync limitation
The maximum number of modes is like he said theoretically VERY high but not infinite. You are limited by the refractive index of the core/cladding and the laser(s) you are using. I think somewhere around 50micro is the smallest beam used(by lasers) so at the very least you'd have to have >50micron separation between beams. All beam angles have to be less than the critical angle. The longer the cable the bigger the difference in when the individual signals arrive at the other end. Signals closer to the critial angle can take many times longer to arrive than one near the angle of incidence. Higher order modes will also lose signal strength faster than low order modes. Meaning if you were to point a laser straight at a piece of glass (highest order) almost 100% of the light would penetrate. At the lowest order (nearly) parallel to the glass the light will mostly bounce off. Again another limitation to how many modes you can fit into a single piece of fiber. I don't know the exact number of what's common in high end instrastructure for multimode as I've only mostly seen/used single mode for long distance high rate hauls. But I do know the limit of a single pair multimode is around 10-20Gb/s.

Most of the time the backbone will be single mode trunk with multi mode fiber using only one mode for the internal network(using low cost led's). This is done due to cost as standard 850nm multimode orange fiber is very cheap compared to single mode.

I cannot say that a cable that can do 850Gb/s is all that impressive when it's just a bundle of individual fibers. If it were a single pair it would be ground breaking.

The thunderbolt is a pretty neat idea for the average consumer. Enclose the emitter and sensor in the cable ends and just have it be a standard copper connection so you don't have to worry about contaminates. But $650 seems a bit steep. You will have to deal with (as a retailer) with people that do not understand how fragile fiber is. Toslink gets away with it because it's a really thick pieve of plastic that is not sensitive to micro bends but it's bandwidth is really low comparatively.

Toslink is extremely sensitive to tight bends. if you bend it tight, it'll snap!

$650 for a few high speed transceivers, and the micro size of it all (way, WAY smaller than 2 LC SFPs and associated connectors) makes it pretty impressive.

as for the modes, a singlemode core is 9µm. and you can stuff one of every wavelength from blue to 1550nm (or further) down it, depending on your launch equipment.

Multimode cable is significantly more expensive than single mode cable - it's the equipment that costs more for singlemode.

Most 100Gb singlemode transceivers do 25Gb/s per wavelength, on a pair of 9µm fibers.
 
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post #33 of 42
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by phill1978 View Post

the thing with usb is that its so prolific that its as widely if not more widely so going forward than ethernet. If they came up with their own protocol stack beyond tcp/ip and increased deliverable 10GBPS lengths to a mere 20 meters for the average home they could actually find a good market for safe, extremely simple and fast networking in the home and small business..

i cant be the only one who's thought this?

USB is not designed to do what Ethernet does. USB has more overhead and latency timeout limits.
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post #34 of 42
Quote:
Originally Posted by phill1978 View Post

the thing with usb is that its so prolific that its as widely if not more widely so going forward than ethernet. If they came up with their own protocol stack beyond tcp/ip and increased deliverable 10GBPS lengths to a mere 20 meters for the average home they could actually find a good market for safe, extremely simple and fast networking in the home and small business..

i cant be the only one who's thought this?

ethernet and wifi are just as prolific as USB. Not to mention that you can't plug two computers into each other via USB, and you can via ethernet. No networking is "simple" to the average home/small business. As an IT person, adding new ways for people to screw up their network scares me.
 
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post #35 of 42
So what do you guys do? Where do you get to play with all this fiber?
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post #36 of 42
Quote:
Originally Posted by Jinto View Post

Wait, is 1.6Tbps = 200 giga-bytes per second?

Quote:
Originally Posted by driftingforlife View Post

Its roughly 120 giga bytes per second each way.

I thought to go from bits to bytes you just divide by 8?
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post #37 of 42
This isnt all that amazing, 100GbE has been out for a while. Problem is the cost per Gbit is too high. I have seen only 2 100GbE devices and they were installed in a pair of routers at Verizon in Miami. I have seen 1000's of 10GbE and 40GbE devices. Problem for long haul is quality of fiber in the ground. The problem for data centers is 3 40GbE links cost less, and 3 v 1 fibers is nothing. Hell running 10 10GbE copper runs is cheaper.

It main reason is that more server, in more places, with less bandwidth is better than a few servers with a ton of bandwidth. As a content provider, having servers in 10 datacenters with 10Gbit each would out preform having servers in a single data center with 100Gbit.
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post #38 of 42
Quote:
Originally Posted by whiskeycritic View Post

So what do you guys do? Where do you get to play with all this fiber?

I may or may not do work for large financial institutions from time to time?

They may or may not have really cool data centers that they would frown on me taking pictures in?
 
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post #39 of 42
Quote:
Originally Posted by rcoolb2002 View Post

So just throwing some numbers together......

PCI-e 3.0 x16 = 8GT/s = 32GB/s = 256 gbps

How are you gonna use that 800gbps at home again?

DDR4 is slated to come in at about 20gbps!!

Aida64 clocks my ram over 65GBps copy speed, DDR4 will be faster. You can make use of the bandwidth by transfering files between ramdisks on separate machines. Servers can have a lot of ram so it may theoretically be useful.
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post #40 of 42
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by ionstorm66 View Post

This isnt all that amazing, 100GbE has been out for a while. Problem is the cost per Gbit is too high. I have seen only 2 100GbE devices and they were installed in a pair of routers at Verizon in Miami. I have seen 1000's of 10GbE and 40GbE devices. Problem for long haul is quality of fiber in the ground. The problem for data centers is 3 40GbE links cost less, and 3 v 1 fibers is nothing. Hell running 10 10GbE copper runs is cheaper.

It main reason is that more server, in more places, with less bandwidth is better than a few servers with a ton of bandwidth. As a content provider, having servers in 10 datacenters with 10Gbit each would out preform having servers in a single data center with 100Gbit.

This would be more useful for HPC clusters rather than more "standard" datacenters.
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