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Anyone knows how is the Motherboard's BIOS made?

post #1 of 8
Thread Starter 
Just a quick curiosity i have, what is ,more o less, the process of create a BIOS Motherboard with all the graphical enviroment tipically friendly user. I know a motherboard is made following a planning, electronic circuits, integraded capacitors here and there, the chipset etc. and once they put everything together how does they make the BIOS which controll the very first functions and the user interface before OS is even on. Do they use a progamming language? How and where they put this program to run if you don't yet a OS or compiler etc.
post #2 of 8
Basically, a bios chip is a programmable eprom with both volatile and non-volatile memory storage.

An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. In other words, it is non-volatile

There is a tiny bit of code programmed into the non-volitile portion that reads the code from the boot sector of the boot device (HDD?), loads that code into the computer's memory and executes it. That starts up the OS.

Beyond that, the volatile memory can contain bios settings code, or in newer bios's (UEFI) graphics and code.

Hope that helps............
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post #3 of 8
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by billbartuska View Post

Basically, a bios chip is a programmable eprom with both volatile and non-volatile memory storage.

An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. In other words, it is non-volatile

There is a tiny bit of code programmed into the non-volitile portion that reads the code from the boot sector of the boot device (HDD?), loads that code into the computer's memory and executes it. That starts up the OS.

Beyond that, the volatile memory can contain bios settings code, or in newer bios's (UEFI) graphics and code.

Hope that helps............

Nice, now if the code for the UEFI is programmed inside the volatile portion of the EPROM, how does it remember the specifications of the computer or the overclock the user give it the last time? On which programming language they writte the code for the graphic enviroment UEFI and how they load it inside the EPROM.
post #4 of 8
The CMOS memory holds the settings until it looses power, the actual BIOS is in the non-volatile part.

Modern UEFI's come in a standard basic shell that is coded by AMI(American Megatrends Inc.) and customized by motherboard makers. Basically if you look closely, depending on which makers customized what they did (and they customize everything, even the names of settings) you can tell which makers collaborate and which use others as ODMs. Anyways to get really nice graphical UIs they work on what AMI gives them and build on it. Supposedly it takes a crap load of coding to get really nice looking BIOS because of restrictions including resolution requirements and amount of colors available before drivers are loaded. When you see a special feature, it is a module. basically that is how you add extra functionality to the BIOS, you write small modules and integrate them into the whole, just like other pieces of software.

The SPI Flash(the BIOS ROM) is divided into five regions; Flash Descriptor, BIOS, Intel ME, Gigabit Ethernet, and platform data. This data can be accessed by the CPU, Ethernet controller, and Intel ME. When the system is powered on, the Intel ME(Management Engine) Firmware which manages the system as a whole is loaded into the DRAM through the IMC, and it is gets its own protected resources, it communicates with the Intel Management Engine through the DMI bus. The BIOS will initialize and get the system ready to read the OS from the disk, it is like a mini OS responsible for system management. AMD has something similar to Intel's ME, but i forget what it is called.
Edited by Sin0822 - 3/29/14 at 1:26pm
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post #5 of 8
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by Sin0822 View Post

The CMOS memory holds the settings until it looses power, the actual BIOS is in the non-volatile part.

Modern UEFI's come in a standard basic shell that is coded by AMI(American Megatrends Inc.) and customized by motherboard makers. Basically if you look closely, depending on which makers customized what they did (and they customize everything, even the names of settings) you can tell which makers collaborate and which use others as ODMs. Anyways to get really nice graphical UIs they work on what AMI gives them and build on it. Supposedly it takes a crap load of coding to get really nice looking BIOS because of restrictions including resolution requirements and amount of colors available before drivers are loaded. When you see a special feature, it is a module. basically that is how you add extra functionality to the BIOS, you write small modules and integrate them into the whole, just like other pieces of software.

The SPI Flash(the BIOS ROM) is divided into five regions; Flash Descriptor, BIOS, Intel ME, Gigabit Ethernet, and platform data. This data can be accessed by the CPU, Ethernet controller, and Intel ME. When the system is powered on, the Intel ME(Management Engine) Firmware which manages the system as a whole is loaded into the DRAM through the IMC, and it is gets its own protected resources, it communicates with the Intel Management Engine through the DMI bus. The BIOS will initialize and get the system ready to read the OS from the disk, it is like a mini OS responsible for system management. AMD has something similar to Intel's ME, but i forget what it is called.
I'm still not sure how they AMI and the customizer manage to "program" the UEFI, what language they use to edit this. know something?
post #6 of 8
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post #7 of 8
Quote:
Originally Posted by Sujeto 1 View Post

I'm still not sure how they AMI and the customizer manage to "program" the UEFI, what language they use to edit this. know something?

It's just firmware or other embedded software..... it's written in C and utilizes a special compiler to assembly: http://wiki.osdev.org/UEFI

BIOS was a mess of legacy code and workarounds....
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post #8 of 8
Thread Starter 
I see, i have now a bit more understading of this. You guys are awesome.
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