Overclock.net › Forums › Industry News › Software News › [AnandTech] GeForce+Radeon: Previewing DirectX 12 Multi Adapter with Ashes of the Singularity
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

[AnandTech] GeForce+Radeon: Previewing DirectX 12 Multi Adapter with Ashes of the Singularity - Page 10

post #91 of 326
I am not at all interested in mixing up AMD + Nvidia.

But I am more interested in Intel + AMD/Nvidia. dGPU + iGPU is what these matter. Almost 90% of the gaming rig have iGPU these days. It is important that the developer make use of the iGPU to render something. May be the game UI can be render in iGPU for example.
Gaming Rig
(10 items)
 
Work/Web Rig
(11 items)
 
Web Rig
(8 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5-2500K @4GHz stock volt OC Asus P8Z77-V LK Palit GTX 750Ti StormX Dual Corsair Vengence 1600MHz_CL8 4GBx4 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Seagate 80GB 7200rpm Maxtor 250GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper 212+ Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorCase
BenQ XL2720z @ 1920x1080 144Hz Silverstone Ps06 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Quad Q9650 Gigabyte EP41-UD3L Asus 1GB Radeon 7790 DirectCU OC Corsair Gaming Ram 2GBx2 DDR2-800 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 80GB 7200rpm Western Digital 200GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper TX3 Windows 7 pro 
MonitorPowerCase
Samsung 226bw 1680x1050 Acbel iPower 510w (450w PSU) LianLi PS05 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
AMD E350 MSI E350IA-E45 AMD Radeon 6310 4GB Kingston DDR3 1333 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Western Digital 80GB Linux Slackware 14.1 Samsung 22" 1680x1050 LCD Acbel 300w PSU 
  hide details  
Reply
Gaming Rig
(10 items)
 
Work/Web Rig
(11 items)
 
Web Rig
(8 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5-2500K @4GHz stock volt OC Asus P8Z77-V LK Palit GTX 750Ti StormX Dual Corsair Vengence 1600MHz_CL8 4GBx4 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Seagate 80GB 7200rpm Maxtor 250GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper 212+ Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorCase
BenQ XL2720z @ 1920x1080 144Hz Silverstone Ps06 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Quad Q9650 Gigabyte EP41-UD3L Asus 1GB Radeon 7790 DirectCU OC Corsair Gaming Ram 2GBx2 DDR2-800 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 80GB 7200rpm Western Digital 200GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper TX3 Windows 7 pro 
MonitorPowerCase
Samsung 226bw 1680x1050 Acbel iPower 510w (450w PSU) LianLi PS05 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
AMD E350 MSI E350IA-E45 AMD Radeon 6310 4GB Kingston DDR3 1333 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Western Digital 80GB Linux Slackware 14.1 Samsung 22" 1680x1050 LCD Acbel 300w PSU 
  hide details  
Reply
post #92 of 326
Maybe now crossfire will work properly biggrin.gif

















/trollololol
Us and Them
(19 items)
 
Mini Me
(11 items)
 
The Traveller
(12 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
i7 4930K Overclocked  Rampage IV Extreme Black Edition EVGA Titan X Superclocked EVGA Titan X Superclocked 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
24GB Crucial Ballistix Elite Lots of SSD's WD Caviar Black 2TB x 2 Logitech BD-RW 
CoolingOSMonitorKeyboard
Corsair H80i Windows 7 Professional Dell 34" Ultrawide 1440p x 2  Ducky Shine 2 MX Red 
PowerCaseMouseMouse Pad
Enermax MaxRevo 1500w Cooler Master Cosmos 2 R.A.T. 9 Wireless Razor Aluminum 
AudioAudioOther
Xonar Essence SXT  Sennheiser HD598 Headphones Mini Fridge full of German Beer 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel i5 4790k MSI Z97I MSI GTX 970 Million Edition 8gb Crucial Ballistix Elite 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
1TB WD Blue 7200rpm LG USB External Windows 7 Professional 55" Lg Tv 
KeyboardPowerCase
Microsoft Wireless Bluetooth EVGA 500W EVGA Hadron Air (modified) 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel 6700K Asus Maximus VIII Impact  MSI Gaming GTX 1070 16GB DDR4 Corsair Vengence 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
HGST 1TB x 2 2.5" HDD External Blu-Ray Cooler Master Gemini Microsoft Windows 7 64 Bit 
MonitorKeyboardCaseOther
4K LG TV Cheap Portable Fractal Design Node 202 256GB SD Card 
  hide details  
Reply
Us and Them
(19 items)
 
Mini Me
(11 items)
 
The Traveller
(12 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsGraphics
i7 4930K Overclocked  Rampage IV Extreme Black Edition EVGA Titan X Superclocked EVGA Titan X Superclocked 
RAMHard DriveHard DriveOptical Drive
24GB Crucial Ballistix Elite Lots of SSD's WD Caviar Black 2TB x 2 Logitech BD-RW 
CoolingOSMonitorKeyboard
Corsair H80i Windows 7 Professional Dell 34" Ultrawide 1440p x 2  Ducky Shine 2 MX Red 
PowerCaseMouseMouse Pad
Enermax MaxRevo 1500w Cooler Master Cosmos 2 R.A.T. 9 Wireless Razor Aluminum 
AudioAudioOther
Xonar Essence SXT  Sennheiser HD598 Headphones Mini Fridge full of German Beer 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel i5 4790k MSI Z97I MSI GTX 970 Million Edition 8gb Crucial Ballistix Elite 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
1TB WD Blue 7200rpm LG USB External Windows 7 Professional 55" Lg Tv 
KeyboardPowerCase
Microsoft Wireless Bluetooth EVGA 500W EVGA Hadron Air (modified) 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel 6700K Asus Maximus VIII Impact  MSI Gaming GTX 1070 16GB DDR4 Corsair Vengence 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
HGST 1TB x 2 2.5" HDD External Blu-Ray Cooler Master Gemini Microsoft Windows 7 64 Bit 
MonitorKeyboardCaseOther
4K LG TV Cheap Portable Fractal Design Node 202 256GB SD Card 
  hide details  
Reply
post #93 of 326
I really don't see this going anywhere. As long as it's not something built into game engines, or enforced through drivers from a combination of Microsoft, nVidia, and/or AMD, most game developers will not spend the time coding their game to make this work. It just isn't going to happen. The market is far too niche; dual identical GPU systems are rare enough as it is.

It's an interesting tech demo, that's for sure, but that's all it is.
Millenium Falcon
(24 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i7 4930k MSI Big Bang Xpower II EVGA GTX 690 Patriot Viper II Sector 7 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
OCZ Deneva 2 Corsair Force 3 Maxtor Western Digital Green 
Optical DriveCoolingCoolingCooling
Samsung BD/DVD-RW Swiftech MCP655 x2 Black Ice GTX 480 Black Ice GTX 280 
CoolingCoolingCoolingCooling
Alphacool Repack Dual D5 Watercool Heatkiller 3.0 Alphacool GTX 690 fullcover Bitspower Big Bang Xpower II fullcover 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 8.1 64-bit Professional 3x Dell S2340 Max Keyboard Durandal CoolerMaster V1000 
CaseMouseMouse PadAudio
Azza Genesis 9000B Logitech G700 Roccat Alumic Onkyo HT-S9100THX 
  hide details  
Reply
Millenium Falcon
(24 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i7 4930k MSI Big Bang Xpower II EVGA GTX 690 Patriot Viper II Sector 7 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
OCZ Deneva 2 Corsair Force 3 Maxtor Western Digital Green 
Optical DriveCoolingCoolingCooling
Samsung BD/DVD-RW Swiftech MCP655 x2 Black Ice GTX 480 Black Ice GTX 280 
CoolingCoolingCoolingCooling
Alphacool Repack Dual D5 Watercool Heatkiller 3.0 Alphacool GTX 690 fullcover Bitspower Big Bang Xpower II fullcover 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 8.1 64-bit Professional 3x Dell S2340 Max Keyboard Durandal CoolerMaster V1000 
CaseMouseMouse PadAudio
Azza Genesis 9000B Logitech G700 Roccat Alumic Onkyo HT-S9100THX 
  hide details  
Reply
post #94 of 326
Quote:
Originally Posted by Gedm5 View Post

To be honest I never thought I would see the day. I am really glad to see that having both brands gives the best performance.

in the next 3 months nvidia will release a driver disabling this feature. I guarantee it.
 
Deep-6
(14 items)
 
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core I5-4690K Asus Maximus VI Gene MSI GAMING 4G GTX 970 gskill sniper 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 850 evo  Samsung 850 evo Thermalright HR-02 Macho Rev.B Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
Acer K242hl Corsair Raptor K30 Seasonic X-650 Fractal Design Arc Mini R2 
MouseAudio
Logitech MX518 Sennheiser - MOMENTUM Over-the-Ear Headphones 
  hide details  
Reply
 
Deep-6
(14 items)
 
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core I5-4690K Asus Maximus VI Gene MSI GAMING 4G GTX 970 gskill sniper 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 850 evo  Samsung 850 evo Thermalright HR-02 Macho Rev.B Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
Acer K242hl Corsair Raptor K30 Seasonic X-650 Fractal Design Arc Mini R2 
MouseAudio
Logitech MX518 Sennheiser - MOMENTUM Over-the-Ear Headphones 
  hide details  
Reply
post #95 of 326
from my understanding DX12 pretty much takes the control out of Nvidia / AMD's hands because it isn't driver related it isn't exactly engine / game DEV related it is hardware capability related. So in short from my understanding Nvidia or AMD cannot do anything about it is a core function of DX12 and bypasses Nvidia and AMD's control and it is directly hardware related both are on the PCIe lanes both connect to CPU both function both will be used both are linked thru Microsofts OS from my understanding there is no disable option in DX12 to disable it if you got both GPU's in it it just works and that is that.

DX12 is designed to not rely on the drivers but instead rely directly on the hardware that is the point of close to the metal access it bypasses the driver base abstraction lvl and goes directly to the capability of the hardware itself and doing so drastically reduces latency and resource overhead.

I am under impression that after each Nvidia / AMD get ready to release a GPU lineup / architecture they are required to give Microsoft theyre details of the hardware / architecture itself along with testing samples and then Microsoft tests them and programs it into DX12 as a windows update and if Nvida or AMD decide to refuse they will be violating the service agreement or whatever they made with Microsoft when they signed up to be partners with Microsoft with DX12 essentially opening up for major lawsuits / consequences against whichever company backed out after signing the agreement to be partnered in the Microsoft / DX12 project.

I was told flat out by a Microsoft employee AMD / Nvidia did sign agreements with Microsoft and partnered with Microsoft in a legally binding way having to do with DX12 and the like. I emailed and asked many times ever since the rumors about the both AMD & Nvidia GPU's working together side by side and that they were on a low level access playing field meaning drivers don't play much of a part at all other than fan speed / temps / resource usage statistics for software to read and I got an answer around 3 weeks ago it was vague and tippy toed around subject but essentially cleared the situation up in my eyes.

I was told essentially all the down and dirty stuff will be monitored / controlled / optimized by Microsoft not AMD / Nvidia because AMD / Nvidia will be just supplying the hardware and hardware specs and such to Microsoft along with hardware for Microsoft to test and optimize for in the DX12 code and they will roll out the optimization in the windows updates and both vendors will not have control of the down and dirty stuff because Microsoft will have that control.

Think of it as to how APPLE / Android / macintosh / Linux do it they get said manufacturers to make the hardware and then they design the OS / software around it same as is done with Sony PS4 / Microsofts Xbox ONE in essence Microsoft will be the shot caller for the Windows PC related hardware / software just as macintosh / apple / android / Linux are on theyre OS's and accompanying hardware. I want to point out all of these OS's use many manufacturers to make theyre hardware or simply use other manufacturers hardware yet the OS companies hold the keys and call the shots in the end not the hardware manufacturers.

Think of the above conversation if said hardware manufacturer will not agree to the OS manufacturers terms said hardware manufacturer doesn't get to play in that OS's playground and DX12 is Microsofts playground and AMD / Nvidia legally made an agreement and partnered with Microsoft essentially saying AMD / Nvidia will supply the hardware / specs / details and Microsoft will supply the OS / base software and game / engine DEV's then add Microsoft's DX12 code / patch to theyre engine / game and good to go and Microsoft supplies said DX12 optmizations for hardware directly thru windows updates.

I want to also point out from my understanding DX12 is all about getting rid of proprietary biased software and goes straight to the hardware capability so if one manufacturer is better at ASYNC compute or raw compute well that manufacturer has a real advantage at that task DX12 is all about getting rid of the proprietary stuff and getting down to the nitty gritty of the hardwares capability / design that way it is no longer about software lvl advancement by hardware manufacturers but hardware itself's advancement and capabilities are what the hardware manufacturers will be responsible for.

The software side of things is in the OS's realm of control / monitoring / optimizing with DX12 the hardware manufacturer makes the hardware and tries to come up with newer and better designs and worries about raw performance not the software implementation other than on a basic lvl with DX12.
Edited by rickcooperjr - 10/26/15 at 11:06pm
My System
(15 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel I7 5820k 4.6ghz core 4.3ghz CPU cache 1.345v asus sabertooth X99 sold R9 290x's am currently running a R9 280A X... 16gb of ddr4 corsair vengeance LPX 3200mhz 1t 1... 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
M.2 Toshiba OCZ RD400 512gb ASUS DVD rw  liquid cooled cpu and gpu's windows 10 pro 64bit 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
3 x 32lcd/led 2560x1600 wolfking timberwolf EVGA supernova 1300w G2  Thermaltake core X9 
MouseMouse PadOther
steel series wow cataclysm 14button programable  wolfking sniper Intel PRO PT dual port PCIe server NIC 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(15 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel I7 5820k 4.6ghz core 4.3ghz CPU cache 1.345v asus sabertooth X99 sold R9 290x's am currently running a R9 280A X... 16gb of ddr4 corsair vengeance LPX 3200mhz 1t 1... 
Hard DriveOptical DriveCoolingOS
M.2 Toshiba OCZ RD400 512gb ASUS DVD rw  liquid cooled cpu and gpu's windows 10 pro 64bit 
MonitorKeyboardPowerCase
3 x 32lcd/led 2560x1600 wolfking timberwolf EVGA supernova 1300w G2  Thermaltake core X9 
MouseMouse PadOther
steel series wow cataclysm 14button programable  wolfking sniper Intel PRO PT dual port PCIe server NIC 
  hide details  
Reply
post #96 of 326
Quote:
Originally Posted by denman View Post

I would like to see if this tech gives any performance bump to dual GPU cards. Could I see better scaling on my GTX 690 if they are "linked" rather than SLI?

Hmm a 690 and a R9 285, Let see, got a 690 and and 2 285s. I will think about it.
post #97 of 326
Quote:
Originally Posted by LancerVI View Post


So in summary; since it's going to be a while before it's implemented industry wide, if at all, it shouldn't be implemented at all?

Is that what I'm reading? I wonder if you felt the same way about any feature that's added to an API when it was added. If so, and people in the business felt the same, we'd still be playing pong.

No. You pretty much got it backwards because you are looking for a fight.

In 2016 there will still be way more DX11 games than DX12. Games you either got earlier, or not AAA games which are not DX12 compatible.
So if you buy GPU only based on DX12, you will cripple your performance overall. In 2017, it might start to change. In that point, then, it will be wise to start thinking forward. And by that time, both AMD and Nvidia will switch GPUs, and you have no idea what will happen then.

Right now, FuryX+980TI is great for AoS (I don't know about fable though, of batman, or any other DX12 game coming), because it uses furyX for async compute and the raw power of the 980TI. But next year, this might change with pascal being more compute oriented than maxwell, because of HBM2, and AMD going with 14nm but most likely won't change overall tech.

So right now, concentrating only on DX12, is a bad idea to those who plan to buy their GPUs in the coming year.
Main system
(16 items)
 
Editing PC
(8 items)
 
 
CPUGraphicsGraphicsRAM
E5-1680v2 AMD FirePro D700 AMD FirePro D700 64GB 1866mhz 
Hard DriveOSMonitorCase
1TB PCIE SSD OSX 10.10.x Dell U2713H Mac Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
Main system
(16 items)
 
Editing PC
(8 items)
 
 
CPUGraphicsGraphicsRAM
E5-1680v2 AMD FirePro D700 AMD FirePro D700 64GB 1866mhz 
Hard DriveOSMonitorCase
1TB PCIE SSD OSX 10.10.x Dell U2713H Mac Pro 
  hide details  
Reply
post #98 of 326
Quote:
Originally Posted by Tsumi View Post

I really don't see this going anywhere. As long as it's not something built into game engines, or enforced through drivers from a combination of Microsoft, nVidia, and/or AMD, most game developers will not spend the time coding their game to make this work. It just isn't going to happen. The market is far too niche; dual identical GPU systems are rare enough as it is.

It's an interesting tech demo, that's for sure, but that's all it is.
Discreate GPU + iGPU is more likely to get kick up using this DirectX12 feature. There are far more people with dGPU + iGPU than dual identical GPU.
Gaming Rig
(10 items)
 
Work/Web Rig
(11 items)
 
Web Rig
(8 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5-2500K @4GHz stock volt OC Asus P8Z77-V LK Palit GTX 750Ti StormX Dual Corsair Vengence 1600MHz_CL8 4GBx4 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Seagate 80GB 7200rpm Maxtor 250GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper 212+ Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorCase
BenQ XL2720z @ 1920x1080 144Hz Silverstone Ps06 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Quad Q9650 Gigabyte EP41-UD3L Asus 1GB Radeon 7790 DirectCU OC Corsair Gaming Ram 2GBx2 DDR2-800 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 80GB 7200rpm Western Digital 200GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper TX3 Windows 7 pro 
MonitorPowerCase
Samsung 226bw 1680x1050 Acbel iPower 510w (450w PSU) LianLi PS05 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
AMD E350 MSI E350IA-E45 AMD Radeon 6310 4GB Kingston DDR3 1333 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Western Digital 80GB Linux Slackware 14.1 Samsung 22" 1680x1050 LCD Acbel 300w PSU 
  hide details  
Reply
Gaming Rig
(10 items)
 
Work/Web Rig
(11 items)
 
Web Rig
(8 items)
 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
i5-2500K @4GHz stock volt OC Asus P8Z77-V LK Palit GTX 750Ti StormX Dual Corsair Vengence 1600MHz_CL8 4GBx4 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Seagate 80GB 7200rpm Maxtor 250GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper 212+ Windows 10 Pro 
MonitorCase
BenQ XL2720z @ 1920x1080 144Hz Silverstone Ps06 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Quad Q9650 Gigabyte EP41-UD3L Asus 1GB Radeon 7790 DirectCU OC Corsair Gaming Ram 2GBx2 DDR2-800 
Hard DriveHard DriveCoolingOS
Samsung 80GB 7200rpm Western Digital 200GB 7200rpm Cooler Master Hyper TX3 Windows 7 pro 
MonitorPowerCase
Samsung 226bw 1680x1050 Acbel iPower 510w (450w PSU) LianLi PS05 
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
AMD E350 MSI E350IA-E45 AMD Radeon 6310 4GB Kingston DDR3 1333 
Hard DriveOSMonitorPower
Western Digital 80GB Linux Slackware 14.1 Samsung 22" 1680x1050 LCD Acbel 300w PSU 
  hide details  
Reply
post #99 of 326
I'm quite impressed with all this but i think is too early to assume anything but would be interesting
to mix up any brand you want and take advantage of all the options the market have to offer.
But i wonder if the devs would take advantage of this and if AMD and Nvidia would be fine with this.
post #100 of 326
Quote:
Originally Posted by Clocknut View Post

Discreate GPU + iGPU is more likely to get kick up using this DirectX12 feature. There are far more people with dGPU + iGPU than dual identical GPU.

That is true. However, the coding for dGPU + iGPU and the coding for dGPU + dGPU are likely two very different things. Although, the coding for dGPU + iGPU can probably be used for strong dGPU + weak dGPU.
Millenium Falcon
(24 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i7 4930k MSI Big Bang Xpower II EVGA GTX 690 Patriot Viper II Sector 7 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
OCZ Deneva 2 Corsair Force 3 Maxtor Western Digital Green 
Optical DriveCoolingCoolingCooling
Samsung BD/DVD-RW Swiftech MCP655 x2 Black Ice GTX 480 Black Ice GTX 280 
CoolingCoolingCoolingCooling
Alphacool Repack Dual D5 Watercool Heatkiller 3.0 Alphacool GTX 690 fullcover Bitspower Big Bang Xpower II fullcover 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 8.1 64-bit Professional 3x Dell S2340 Max Keyboard Durandal CoolerMaster V1000 
CaseMouseMouse PadAudio
Azza Genesis 9000B Logitech G700 Roccat Alumic Onkyo HT-S9100THX 
  hide details  
Reply
Millenium Falcon
(24 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core i7 4930k MSI Big Bang Xpower II EVGA GTX 690 Patriot Viper II Sector 7 
Hard DriveHard DriveHard DriveHard Drive
OCZ Deneva 2 Corsair Force 3 Maxtor Western Digital Green 
Optical DriveCoolingCoolingCooling
Samsung BD/DVD-RW Swiftech MCP655 x2 Black Ice GTX 480 Black Ice GTX 280 
CoolingCoolingCoolingCooling
Alphacool Repack Dual D5 Watercool Heatkiller 3.0 Alphacool GTX 690 fullcover Bitspower Big Bang Xpower II fullcover 
OSMonitorKeyboardPower
Windows 8.1 64-bit Professional 3x Dell S2340 Max Keyboard Durandal CoolerMaster V1000 
CaseMouseMouse PadAudio
Azza Genesis 9000B Logitech G700 Roccat Alumic Onkyo HT-S9100THX 
  hide details  
Reply
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: Software News
Overclock.net › Forums › Industry News › Software News › [AnandTech] GeForce+Radeon: Previewing DirectX 12 Multi Adapter with Ashes of the Singularity