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[Arstechinica] Transistors will stop shrinking in 2021, but Moore’s law will live on - Page 5

post #41 of 46
Quote:
Originally Posted by Mand12 View Post

Second semester of sophomore year when I took it, at a state university. Standard track for an engineering degree. Yes, we had Calc 3 before taking it.

You don't need nuclear forces, though. This is basic QM, an introduction.

Ah that explains it, I took pre-cal first semester, probably altered my path a bit. Been a long time but I bet pre-requisite for Weak/Strong force was Calc 2 and intro to QM was Cal 3. (Been about 15 years now so my memory on it might be trash). Was on that 5 year plan.

P.S. dang impressive pulling off engineering in 4 years btw. Props to you on that thumb.gif Only know a couple people who actually pulled that off.
post #42 of 46
Quote:
Originally Posted by DNMock View Post

I may be way off base here, but I believe Neurons have multiple energy states they use to communicate, wouldn't ditching the binary on/off approach in and of itself massively improve computational power? '

Could basically reboot the die shrink race and start all over with big 60 nm multi state transistors that speak in a 0,1,2,3,4, or 5 rather than 0 and 1 to one another.


Memristor have multiple states as well. It could be the basis of future transistor, and its calculated it could perform like 10 transistors of the same size.


With that alone, you could potentially create PU as powerful for 1/10 the size. For smth like GP100, you need only 1.5 billion memristors to perform as well. for eg.


http://edition.cnn.com/2015/02/26/tech/mci-eth-memristor/

A good introduction read.
Edited by guttheslayer - 7/28/16 at 7:13am
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post #43 of 46
MY QUESTIONS because I am no expert....and a bit of a noob about low level stuff.

1. Frequency.... Higher the frequency the weirder stuff tends to get... but increasing the frequency will also increase performance, but that also increases power and heat... Why are we not at 10GHz? Is it the material?

2. Architectures \ Instruction sets. Simply put, my Raspberi Pi 3 and its new Quad Core ARM 1.2 GHz processor is no match for my laptops Dual Core i7-3540M 3GHz. I ran some FFMPEG encoding and my 4-5 year old laptop is 3-5x faster with the encoding. Is there much room in the improvement in the architectures, or is it pretty much trading off one thing for another?


3... Why are our processors not twice as fast every other year?
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post #44 of 46
Quote:
Originally Posted by Mrzev View Post

MY QUESTIONS because I am no expert....and a bit of a noob about low level stuff.

1. Frequency.... Higher the frequency the weirder stuff tends to get... but increasing the frequency will also increase performance, but that also increases power and heat... Why are we not at 10GHz? Is it the material?

2. Architectures \ Instruction sets. Simply put, my Raspberi Pi 3 and its new Quad Core ARM 1.2 GHz processor is no match for my laptops Dual Core i7-3540M 3GHz. I ran some FFMPEG encoding and my 4-5 year old laptop is 3-5x faster with the encoding. Is there much room in the improvement in the architectures, or is it pretty much trading off one thing for another?


3... Why are our processors not twice as fast every other year?

It takes more energy to make a transistor turn on and off faster. You also have to make considerable sacrifices in efficiency in the CPU pipeline to allow clock speeds that high. It is more efficient to introduce more levels of parallelism to increase performance than it is to continue to up the clock speed.

Core count and clock speed do not add up to performance. The ARM processor operates in a 3 watt tdp, and it makes considerable sacrifices in performance in order to do so.

In order to double performance between one generation and another you need to either increase IPC efficiency, increase the number of functional units (and therefore add more transistors) and/or increase clock speed. Every other year or so CPUs move into a smaller processing node, which allows manufacturers to fit the same number of transistors in roughly 2/3rds the area. You could choose to clock at a higher clock speed, but that reduces energy efficiency and has diminishing returns. You can add more cores and more stages to the CPU pipeline, which is what intel and AMD have largely done, but that only increases performance in highly parallel workloads.

In specific types of workload performance has increased by wide margins between generations. For example, the AES 256bit accelerated instruction set decreased CPU decryption time by something like 250% in some cases.
post #45 of 46
bleh Calc 3, just a bunch of 3D graphs.

Differential equations is where it's at.
post #46 of 46
Quote:
Originally Posted by mothergoose729 View Post

Core count and clock speed do not add up to performance. The ARM processor operates in a 3 watt tdp, and it makes considerable sacrifices in performance in order to do so.

Yup, I try to explain that every time i hear an argument over AMD vs Intel clock speeds i say its like comparing apples to oranges. I dont know why though. I guess it annoys me the metric the public uses to determine the speed of a processor is the number of cores and the clock speed. What is a better way to define performance? Is it FLOPS? How can i look at a spec sheet for a processor and be able to roughly gauge the power of the chip in relation to other chips?
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