Overclock.net › Forums › Overclock.net Forum › FAQs › Info: Why does too much heat/voltage damage the CPU? - Scientific version
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

Info: Why does too much heat/voltage damage the CPU? - Scientific version

post #1 of 22
Thread Starter 
This guide will give you the scientific version of why heat and/or too much voltage can damage a CPU.

Electrons in one transistor are not supposed to be able to reach other transistors in normal circumstances, but according to the principle of quantum tunnelling, an electron can actually escape from an infinitely deep energy well; it just does not happen that often. A transistor is made up of positively and negatively doped silicon around un-doped silicon. Every now and again, through chance alone, an electron can tunnel away from the conductive silicon keeping it in place. Usually it will only burrow in a couple of atoms and then return, though sometimes it can travel into another adjacent transistor. This does not normally cause a problem, because you need a lot of stray electrons to cause an error in how the gate is read. The problems start to occur when an electron attaches itself to one of the silicon atoms in the un-doped section of the silicon, or knocks another electron out of its orbit. This is known as silicon degradation, and over time, usually measured in years, a path is formed by the damage caused by these tunnelling electrons between two gates. Electrons can then flow across the junction freely, causing it to malfunction, and the value be misread by the computer, resulting in an error.

The more energy an electron has, the more likely it is to tunnel, which is why if your CPU is running hot, or has a considerably higher voltage going through it, electrons can tunnel through far more easily. All CPU’s are built so that there is an inbuilt resistance to quantum tunnelling for an extended period of time, but when you overclock your CPU, that period is reduced.

If you overclock or over-volt the chip too much, you can actually physically destroy the silicon lattice of gates within a processor.

Just a small note at the end for temperatures.

AMD 90nm Users: Keep those CPU temps below 55 degrees Celsius. AMD mobiles can go higher.

Intel Northwood Users: Keep those CPU temps below 55 degrees Celsius.

Intel Prescott 90nm Users: Keep those CPU temps below 65 degrees Celsius.

Intel Presler 65nm Users: Keep those CPU temps below 60 degrees Celsius.

Intel Core 2 Duo Users: Keep those CPU temps below 60 degrees Celsius.


Hope this guide helps.
post #2 of 22
this is good info m8 ...
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
Amd Sempron 2800+ MSI VClass Windows Xp pro -Sp1 + SP2 Dell 17inch 
KeyboardPowerMouse
Trust ATX Microsoft Optical USB 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
Amd Sempron 2800+ MSI VClass Windows Xp pro -Sp1 + SP2 Dell 17inch 
KeyboardPowerMouse
Trust ATX Microsoft Optical USB 
  hide details  
Reply
post #3 of 22
great dude!
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
P3 500 Compaq POS unsable as hel XP HOME 19inch ACER LCD 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Microsoft wireless 145 watt compaq. yeah bab Compaq ugly next project Logitech MX518 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
P3 500 Compaq POS unsable as hel XP HOME 19inch ACER LCD 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Microsoft wireless 145 watt compaq. yeah bab Compaq ugly next project Logitech MX518 
  hide details  
Reply
post #4 of 22
LOL too technical for me im only 15.
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
AMD 64 3500+ Clawhammer DFI nf4 SLI-DR XP pro RELISYS TE988 
PowerCaseMouse
Enermax Noisetaker 600W ATX A white one LOL 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardOSMonitor
AMD 64 3500+ Clawhammer DFI nf4 SLI-DR XP pro RELISYS TE988 
PowerCaseMouse
Enermax Noisetaker 600W ATX A white one LOL 
  hide details  
Reply
post #5 of 22
wow, same, but i get it...now i know why.
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
920 D0 BloodRage 295GTX 6gb Mushkin XP 
Hard DriveOSMonitorKeyboard
150gb raptor Win 7 Ultimate Dell 2009w Logitech Illuminated 
PowerCaseMouseMouse Pad
Corsair 850w lian-Li PC-P50R MMMM! G5 Ratzpad 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
920 D0 BloodRage 295GTX 6gb Mushkin XP 
Hard DriveOSMonitorKeyboard
150gb raptor Win 7 Ultimate Dell 2009w Logitech Illuminated 
PowerCaseMouseMouse Pad
Corsair 850w lian-Li PC-P50R MMMM! G5 Ratzpad 
  hide details  
Reply
post #6 of 22
wow man
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardMonitorPower
Athy 64 3200+ GA-K8NS KDS LCD 17" xconnect 
Case
TT asreV 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardMonitorPower
Athy 64 3200+ GA-K8NS KDS LCD 17" xconnect 
Case
TT asreV 
  hide details  
Reply
post #7 of 22
too bad nobody has made a chip that will shut down broken transistors. Or, have it be asycronys with groups of transistors that can take different ammounts of voltage.
post #8 of 22
lol too technical for a 15 year old! im 14 and i got it ^ ^ didnt mean to be mean dude only kiddin, but seriously interestin stuff there.
iMac 27"
(15 items)
 
  
Reply
iMac 27"
(15 items)
 
  
Reply
post #9 of 22
Im 15. I got it. Nice FAQ
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel Core2 Duo E8400 3.0Ghz Gigabyte GA-EP45-UD3P EVGA 8800 GTS 2x OCZ 2Gb 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
2xSeagate Barracuda 7200.10 250Gb in RAID0 DVD-RW Windows 7 x64 RC1 Sceptre 20.1" 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
DCT Factory Enhanced K/B PC Power & Cooling 750w Ultra Wizard Black Mid-Tower M$ 5-Button Optical 
  hide details  
Reply
My System
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Intel Core2 Duo E8400 3.0Ghz Gigabyte GA-EP45-UD3P EVGA 8800 GTS 2x OCZ 2Gb 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
2xSeagate Barracuda 7200.10 250Gb in RAID0 DVD-RW Windows 7 x64 RC1 Sceptre 20.1" 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
DCT Factory Enhanced K/B PC Power & Cooling 750w Ultra Wizard Black Mid-Tower M$ 5-Button Optical 
  hide details  
Reply
post #10 of 22
Im 13 and thats like college stuff. I kinda got how it works but it gives me a headache to think about.
Very nice!
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Duo E6600 Asus P5N32-E SLI EVGA 8800GTX 2 x 1GB GSkill HZ 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
2 x WD Caviar SE16 250GB Sony NEC Optiarc 18x SATA DVD Windows XP Pro Gateway FPD2485W 24" 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Logitech G15 PC P&C Silencer 610W Thermaltake Tsunami Logitech MX518 
  hide details  
Reply
Very nice!
(13 items)
 
  
CPUMotherboardGraphicsRAM
Core 2 Duo E6600 Asus P5N32-E SLI EVGA 8800GTX 2 x 1GB GSkill HZ 
Hard DriveOptical DriveOSMonitor
2 x WD Caviar SE16 250GB Sony NEC Optiarc 18x SATA DVD Windows XP Pro Gateway FPD2485W 24" 
KeyboardPowerCaseMouse
Logitech G15 PC P&C Silencer 610W Thermaltake Tsunami Logitech MX518 
  hide details  
Reply
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: FAQs
Overclock.net › Forums › Overclock.net Forum › FAQs › Info: Why does too much heat/voltage damage the CPU? - Scientific version