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How to make your own cat 5 cables

post #1 of 13
Thread Starter 
well i thought i would make a write up to explain how simple it is to make your own network cable.

What you need
  • Length of cable (between 6 inches and about 300 feet)
  • RJ-45 Heads
  • Cat-5 Crimping Tool (ratcheting preferred)
  • wire strippers
  • Cat-5 Cable tester (optional but good if you make a lot of cable)

Length of cable


RJ-45 Heads you all probably know what these look like but here they are


Cat-5 Crimping Tool



Getting started
first you need to cut the length of wire you want plus at least 8 inches just encase. then you pick your first end and cut 2 inches of just the casing off that end with the wire strippers or utility knife or the blade on the crimper's and you will see this.





there are 8 wires all color coded. they are twisted to prevent interference between pairs.
  • green
  • green/white
  • orange
  • orange/white
  • blue
  • blue/white
  • brown
  • brown/white

there are 4 ways to wire you cable. straight through a/b, and cross over, and rollover cable. the kind that seams to be popular is type-B and all that matters is how you line the wires up in the RJ-45 Heads

in type-B the orange and green wires get switched. also to make a crossover cable you have a type-B plug on one side and a typd-A plug on the other side.

rollover cables are a specilized cable and to make it you take and make one end of you cable type-B starting with orange/white and ending in brown which is pin 1-8 then on the other side you just reverse the wires so that you start with brown in pin 1 and end with orange/white in pin 8





so now first you untwist the orange and straighten them out and put it orange/white then orange in your hand then untwist the green and add the green/white now untwist the blue and add the blue then blue/white then add the green then untwist the brown and add brown/white then brown. once you make them a few times you will remember the pattern.


be very careful not to let the wires get mixed up because sometimes it is hard to tell the difference between the whites.


now be careful and you will need to cut the wires straight (hold them very tight because the more even the better) you only want about 1 inch of the colored wires to be left out of the casing. this is because you will need some of the casing to crimp to.


make sure your preferred clippers that you are using to make the ends even are sharp and can cut good other wise it will be hard to slid them into the Rj-45 head.


now when you put the wires in you hold the RJ-45 Head so that the pins are facing up (holding clip facing down) like in the third RJ-45 Head. slowly push them in, there are dividers to make sure they track rite and make sure all wires are pushed to the front of the Rj-45 head.


now take your crimper's and crimp the Rj-45 head onto the wire. and your done with the first side. now do the same to the opposite side or adjust the color order if you are making a cross over cable. what happens when you crimp the wire is the 8 pins are forced through the casing into the 8 individual wires then there is another piece of plastic that is forced into the outer casing to help hold the Rj-45 head onto the wire.

just remember this order for straight through.


1) Orange/white
2) orange
3) green/white
4) blue
5) blue/white
6) green
7) brown/white
8) brown
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post #2 of 13
Thanks for the info, but personally as an aircraft maintainer its more cost / time effective to just buy fully assembled from a whole seller.

Useful repair guide too.

+rep For the research!
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post #3 of 13
Looks like a good start, you should also explain that when you push in the wires, you have to be holding the RJ45 connector with the pins facing upward (A very common mistake to put the RJ45 on backwards). Another good trick that I have learned is that once you get the wires lined up, push them together as tight as you can, then clip them with a wire clipper, so it's perfectly straight, this makes it much easier to push in the little wires in the RJ45 connector with the proper alignment.
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post #4 of 13
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by SoloSolider View Post
Thanks for the info, but personally as an aircraft maintainer its more cost / time effective to just buy fully assembled from a whole seller.

Useful repair guide too.

+rep For the research!
thank you. this is good so that if you and your friends use a lot of cable you can just buy a 1000 ft box for $60 and save money over a bunch of individual cables. and were im working now we pull all the cat 5 and then we have to add the heads on after the wire is pulled.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Duckydude View Post
Looks like a good start, you should also explain that when you push in the wires, you have to be holding the RJ45 connector with the pins facing upward (A very common mistake to put the RJ45 on backwards). Another good trick that I have learned is that once you get the wires lined up, push them together as tight as you can, then clip them with a wire clipper, so it's perfectly straight, this makes it much easier to push in the little wires in the RJ45 connector with the proper alignment.
thank you. i cleared up a few of the instructions so that they make more sense. sometimes it is hard to explain in words how to do things.
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post #5 of 13
Only time I do this is when I'm running cable.

Excellent write up. rep+
 
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post #6 of 13
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by Krunk_Kracker View Post
Only time I do this is when I'm running cable.

Excellent write up. rep+
thank you. i also thought about taking my 6 foot pre made cable and shortening it to a 8 inch cable because my modem sits rite under my router.
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post #7 of 13
This is a nitpick just for accuracy. Twisted is not shielded. the twisting does cause less interference between pairs because twisting wires causes the EMF generated by electricity running through copper to be kinda sorta canceled out. (The more twists, the better.) Shielding is usually something like tinfoil wrapped around all of the pairs, inside the plastic sheath to keep outside EMF from interfering with the signal on the wires.
This is in response to "they are all twisted so they are shielded from interference."

A better statement would be "they are twisted to prevent interference between pairs."

This is in no way meant to detract from the OP's post. I think it's really good. Just that sometimes I see people confused between the different methods used to prevent crosstalk and interference and this statement kinda jumped out at me.
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post #8 of 13
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by The Llama View Post
This is a nitpick just for accuracy. Twisted is not shielded. the twisting does cause less interference between pairs because twisting wires causes the EMF generated by electricity running through copper to be kinda sorta canceled out. (The more twists, the better.) Shielding is usually something like tinfoil wrapped around all of the pairs, inside the plastic sheath to keep outside EMF from interfering with the signal on the wires.
This is in response to "they are all twisted so they are shielded from interference."

A better statement would be "they are twisted to prevent interference between pairs."

This is in no way meant to detract from the OP's post. I think it's really good. Just that sometimes I see people confused between the different methods used to prevent crosstalk and interference and this statement kinda jumped out at me.
thank you for pointing that out. i like to have people critique my writing because they ketch things like this that i miss, or dont describe rite.
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post #9 of 13
I posted an FAQ on this many months ago.

Quote:
Originally Posted by t4ct1c47
Straight Through Network Cable


Introduction

A straight through network cable acts as an extension enabling a device with a network interface card to be attached to a network. A common form of network media is the UTP Cat5 (Unshielded Twisted Pair Category 5) cable. In this assignment I will explain how to make a UTP Cat5 cable and what circumstances it is best used in as well as its capabilities. For example, the maximum effective length of the cable and its maximum transmission speed.


Making the Cable

Besides the cable itself and two RJ-45 connectors it is best to have the relevant tools for cutting the sleeving and crimping on the connectors. You will need a sharp stanley knife for trimming the sleeveing and a cable crimping tool to lock the connectors onto each end of the cable.

The cables should have their sleeving trimmed back at each end by approximately 13mm in order to expose the wires for sorting. The wires should then be flattened out and sorted into the following order from left to right; White/Orange, Orange, White/Green, Blue, White/Blue, Green, White/Brown, Brown.

Spread Wires

At this point it is best to make sure that the wires are the same length and trim them as necessary. It’s a good idea to check the order of the wires before moving onto the next stage to make sure that orange and brown have not been mixed up as some white wires don’t have their markings coloured clearly. Once the wires are confirmed to be in the correct order then it is time to attach the RJ-45 connectors. This is a simple case of pushing the wires in as far as they will go and then using a crimping tool to secure them into place.

Connected RJ-45

Once one end is done simply repeat the process for the second end, after that be sure to test the cable with an appropriate device before using it in your network. RJ-45 connectors are the most common form of connectors used on UTP Cat5 cables. The RJ simply means Registered Jack and the 45 designation specifies the pin numbering scheme. The cable itself contains 4 twisted pairs of wires making a total of 8 wires (Kerr, R, 1996).


Q&A

Why are the wires twisted?

The twisting of the wires is done to reduce electrical interference and crosstalk.


What is the maximum length we should have a (single run) cable and why?

100 metres is the maximum effective length for a single run cable as this type of cable cannot maintain a good signal for longer than that length. However it is possible to use UTP Cat5 cables to transmit data over 100 metres but this will require the use of devices known as repeaters which basically regenerate the signal strength (Mitchell, B, 2006).


What is the difference between Straight Through and Crossover cables?

A Crossover cable would be used when connecting a device like a PC to another PC rather than having to use a hub or switch. The wires in a Crossover Cable are attached to the RJ-45 connector in a different way as opposed to Straight Through cables.

CrossOver Cable Wire Configuratin


UTP Cat5 cables can carry data at up to 100mbps, how much data is this?

As 8 bits represent 1 byte, or one character, 100mbps is equivalent to 13,107,200 characters per second.


Why are higher data transfer rates required in today’s network i.e. what tasks do users wish to perform that is driving rates upwards?

The operations that computers are required to perform nowadays require larger amounts of data to be processed than a few years ago, which in turn has meant that larger amounts of data need to be transferred across the modern network. This has forced the requirement for new technology to deal with the higher workload.


References

Kerr, R (1996), Wiring Tutorial for 10BaseT Unshielded Twisted Pair in
NetSpec.com
http://www.netspec.com/helpdesk/wiredoc.html
Accessed: 26/02/2006

Mitchell, B (2006), Wireless/Networking “repeater”
About.com
http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/i...f_repeater.htm
Accessed: 06/03/2006

Casazza, T (2006), How to Make a Category 5 / Cat 5E Patch Cable in
LanShack.com
http://www.lanshack.com/make-cat5e.aspx
Accessed: 26/02/2006


The above is basically one of my early reports that I did on the CSN module of my BSc Foundation Computing course. I hope that it gives people an idea on how easy it is to make their own cable.
How to: Make a Straight Through UTP Cat5 cable
post #10 of 13
Both Guide are Great!! Nice work fellas.
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