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What causes a processor to require exponentially more voltage beyond a certain freq?

post #1 of 37
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It just occurred to me that nearly every processor has a point where voltage requirements skyrocket beyond the reasonable limits, rather than increasing at the near-linear bump rate of the slightly faster frequencies. It seems to me that such a "quadratic" increase in voltage becomes necessary right around the 40-50% mark on an overclock. What causes the extreme increase in voltage demand?
    
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post #2 of 37
Quote:
Originally Posted by roflolol View Post
It just occurred to me that nearly every processor has a point where voltage requirements skyrocket beyond the reasonable limits, rather than increasing at the near-linear bump rate of the slightly faster frequencies. It seems to me that such a "quadratic" increase in voltage becomes necessary right around the 40-50% mark on an overclock. What causes the extreme increase in voltage demand?
Probably the same reason it takes 200 horse power to do 100 MPH and 1000 horse power to do 255 MPH.

Though that's just a guess.
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post #3 of 37
I cant really get scientific but as with most things are never linear, the slight bump is percisely that because its at the bottom of the scale, but every chip is different. Its all about finding the sweet spot. It takes around 1.375/1.4v for my i5 to run at 4GHz, but i discovered the other day that it will sit very happily at 3.8GHz at 1.312. So why run it at 4GHz
    
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post #4 of 37
Quote:
Originally Posted by CookieSayWhat View Post
Probably the same reason it takes 200 horse power to do 100 MPH and 1000 horse power to do 255 MPH.

Though that's just a guess.
Gear ratio?
    
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post #5 of 37
This really only happens on intel processors.

AMD parts scale much more linearly.

7.3GHz on i5= 2.01v

7.3GHz on PhII = 1.7v


Cold also helps with linear scaling, under dry ice, my i5 would be pretty linear to about 4.9GHz, after that, it required much more.
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post #6 of 37
AMD chips seem to scale better sub zero, but on air and water they scale horribly.

For instance 7.3GHz 1.7v, 4GHz 1.42v, 4.3GHz 1.55v
    
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post #7 of 37
Heat has an affect on the silicon and messes with the way the transistors conduct electricity and stuff (my guess).

Cold - less space between atoms so less energy required to move electrons

heat - great space between atoms, thus more energy needed to move electrons.
 
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post #8 of 37
answer = silicon is the material used for CPU/GPU and other processors. it is a semiconductor and as such it is governed by temperature. colder temps make it less resistive, and electicity flows freely, meaning higher frequency. all procs will have different "sweetspots" depending on temp. past this point takes exponentially more voltage (potential) to push electricity through a more and more resistive material.
post #9 of 37
Quote:
Originally Posted by BallaTheFeared View Post
AMD chips seem to scale better sub zero, but on air and water they scale horribly.

For instance 7.3GHz 1.7v, 4GHz 1.42v, 4.3GHz 1.55v
the nice thing is that they have no cold bug, so you can run them as cold as you want, and they will still boot fine
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post #10 of 37
I think it also applies to the power gates on the processor itself. Some CPU's power gates aren't as efficient, which results in a lower ratio of dispersed energy. This also can apply to those said "golden" chips. Also plays a role in the phrase "No processor is made equal".
Edited by LethalRise750 - 1/30/11 at 2:57am
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