Sorry for the last dummy tip. Forget that you booted from USB stick. But it may help to minimize the drivers and other software or windows it self. If failsafe work like USB installed windows. Then you know it may be a driver or 3d party app that are causing this.
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Sadly it can't be tested is Safe mode... boosting is not working at all and HWInfo or RM or any other monitoring software doesn't load.
I tried to start with a selective boot with minimal stuff loaded and it does it the same.
Settings in bios should be the same on both windows as hardware have same settings sett om bord. So only I can think of is some changes in windows made this. So if you change something lately. Try role it back.
Reinstall windows should work I think. But that is not fun to do..