I'll be honest here, some of what you want to do are going to involve a little more than 'learning java'. Getting the pharmacy list for instance will require location services (permissions) as well as accessing some web based API (maybe a google search) to get the pharmacies. Your simple app can easily bloom into a far more complex tool based on your specs.
I think your best bet is to use one of the existing apps (assuming you are in the states) from Walgreens, CVS, Walmart (or where ever you get your scripts filled). All of these apps have tools to manage your scripts and refills. Also, most insurance companies will most likely have restrictions on who they contract with for scripts so most people don't go from pharmacy to pharmacy but rather get all their scripts from one place.
That said, I'm not aware of any 'secrets' to learning Java/Android. I've always thought there are people that can code and people that can't. There is nothing wrong with being one that can't, in fact often times they tend to be the design/idea people and we very much need those types of contributors (my experience is that most coders are lousy designers...).
Perhaps someone here would be interested in partnering with you on this.