I don't think that header will provide nearly enough power to run any sort of case lighting. You could make a custom PCB that runs the HDD indicator through a transistor and that would control your separately powered case lights, though.
If you ran it through a transistor to switch the case lighting, sure.
Just run the signal wire from the hdd led connector to the base pin of the transistor, and power source for the lights to the collector pin, and then the light off the emitter pin.
Transistor? Complicated? It's an electronic switch. You just put it in the main power wire for the device you wanna switch on and off, and connect the third wire to the thing that's gonna choose when it's on or not. It's a little metal or plastic cased thing with 3 wires, it's pretty simple actually.
The only reason Fishy has recommended putting it on a mini pcb is to make it easier to mount and insulate all the connections. You could do the same with a soldering iron and some heatshrink.
To make this more simple for someone that doesn't have a lot of electronics experience you could use a solid state relay or a mechanical one. Just need to find a relay that has a minimal current rating and runs around 3 volts.
I have to agree with the concensus that the header itself is not good for powering anything but rather as a signaling point to trigger alternative lighting to blink. Also, you would not want to use ccfls or bulbs for this as they will die in short order (unless rated to blink like that). Maybe a series of leds? (fed from a different power source, triggered via 3.3v hdd header)
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